UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)  
x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2012

OR

 

¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Transition Period from to 

Commission File Number 001-33117

GLOBALSTAR, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

Delaware   41-2116508
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

300 Holiday Square Blvd.

Covington, Louisiana 70433

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

Registrant's Telephone Number, Including Area Code: (985) 335-1500

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

Voting Common Stock, $.0001 par value

5.75% Convertible Senior Notes due 2028

 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ¨No x 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨No x 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x No o

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer ¨   Accelerated filer ¨  

Non-accelerated filer x

(Do not check if a smaller reporting

company)

  Smaller reporting company x

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act) Yes o No x 

 

The aggregate market value of the Registrant's common stock held by non-affiliates at June 30, 2012, the last business day of the Registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $36.6 million. 

As of March 1, 2013, 354,551,816 shares of voting common stock and 135,000,000 shares of nonvoting common stock were outstanding. Unless the context otherwise requires, references to common stock in this Report mean Registrant's voting common stock. 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Registrant's Proxy Statement for the 2013 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Report.

 

 
 

 

FORM 10-K

 

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2012

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

    Page
  PART I
Item 1. Business 1
Item 1A. Risk Factors 12
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments 24
Item 2. Properties 24
Item 3. Legal Proceedings 24
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures 24
  PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity and Related Stockholder Matters 25
Item 6. Selected Financial Data 25
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations 25
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk 42
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data 43
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure 94
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures 94
Item 9B. Other Information 94
  PART III
Item 10. Directors and Executive Officers of the Registrant 94
Item 11. Executive Compensation 95
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management 95
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions 95
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services 95
  PART IV
Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statements Schedules 96
Signatures   97

 

 
 

 

PART I

 

Forward-Looking Statements 

 

Certain statements contained in or incorporated by reference into this Report, other than purely historical information, including, but not limited to, estimates, projections, statements relating to our business plans, objectives and expected operating results, and the assumptions upon which those statements are based, are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements generally are identified by the words "believe," "project," "expect," "anticipate," "estimate," "intend," "strategy," "plan," "may," "should," "will," "would," "will be," "will continue," "will likely result," and similar expressions, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties which may cause actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements, such as the statements regarding our ability to develop and expand our business, our anticipated capital spending (including for any future satellite procurements and launches), our ability to manage costs, our ability to exploit and respond to technological innovation, the effects of laws and regulations (including tax laws and regulations) and legal and regulatory changes, the opportunities for strategic business combinations and the effects of consolidation in our industry on us and our competitors, our anticipated future revenues, our anticipated financial resources, our expectations about the future operational performance of our satellites (including their projected operational lives), the expected strength of and growth prospects for our existing customers and the markets that we serve, commercial acceptance of new products, problems relating to the ground-based facilities operated by us or by independent gateway operators, worldwide economic, geopolitical and business conditions and risks associated with doing business on a global basis and other statements contained in this Report regarding matters that are not historical facts, involve predictions. Risks and uncertainties that could cause or contribute to such differences include, without limitation, those in "Item 1A. Risk Factors" of this Report. We do not intend, and undertake no obligation, to update any of our forward-looking statements after the date of this Report to reflect actual results or future events or circumstances.

 

Item 1. Business

 

Overview

 

Globalstar, Inc. (“we,” “us” or “the Company”) is a leading provider of Mobile Satellite Services (“MSS”) including voice and data communications services globally via satellite. By providing wireless services in areas not served or underserved by terrestrial wireless and wireline networks, we seek to meet our customers' increasing desire for connectivity. We offer voice and data communication services over our network of in-orbit satellites and our active ground stations (or “gateways”), which we refer to collectively as the Globalstar System.

  

In 2006 we began a process of designing, manufacturing and deploying a second-generation constellation of Low Earth Orbit (“LEO”) satellites to replace our first-generation constellation. Our second-generation satellites are designed to last twice as long in space, have 40% greater capacity and be built at a significantly lower cost compared to our first-generation satellites. This effort has culminated in the successful launch of our second-generation satellites, with the fourth launch occurring on February 6, 2013. Three prior launches of second-generation satellites were successfully completed in October 2010, July 2011 and December 2011.We are integrating all of the new second-generation satellites with certain first-generation satellites to form our second-generation constellation. As we place each new satellite into service, our service levels increase for our voice and Duplex data customers. When placed into service, the second-generation satellites launched in February 2013 will complete the restoration of our constellation’s Duplex capabilities. We expect this substantial increase in service levels to result in our products and services becoming more desirable to existing and potential customers. Existing subscribers have started to utilize our services more, measured by minutes of use on the Globalstar System year over year, a trend that we expect to continue. For our existing customers, increases in usage on the Globalstar System may not directly correlate with increased revenue due to the number of subscribers who use our popular unlimited usage rate plans. As we continue to improve Duplex capability, we expect to gain new customers, including winning back former customers, which will result in increased Duplex revenue in the future. We continue to offer a range of price-competitive products to the industrial, governmental and consumer markets. Due to the unique design of the Globalstar System (and based on customer input), we believe that we offer the best voice quality among our peer group.

 

We define a successful level of service for our customers as measured by their ability to make uninterrupted calls of average duration for a system-wide average number of minutes per month. Our goal is to provide service levels and call success rates equal to or better than our MSS competitors so our products and services are attractive to potential customers. We define voice quality as the ability to easily hear, recognize and understand callers with imperceptible delay in the transmission. Due to the unique design of the Globalstar System, we outperform on this measure versus geostationary satellite (“GEO”) competitors due to the difference in signal travel distance, approximately 44,000 additional miles for GEO satellites, which introduces considerable delay and signal degradation to GEO calls. For our competitors using cross-linked satellite architectures, which require multiple inter-satellite connections to complete a call, signal degradation and delay can result in compromised call quality as compared to that experienced over the Globalstar System.

 

We also compete aggressively on price. In 2004 we were the first MSS company to offer bundled pricing plans that we adapted from the terrestrial wireless industry. We expect to continue to innovate and retain our position as the low cost, high quality leader in the MSS industry. 

 

1
 

 

Our satellite communications business, by providing critical mobile communications to our subscribers, serves principally the following markets: recreation and personal; government; public safety and disaster relief; oil and gas; maritime and fishing; natural resources, mining and forestry; construction; utilities; and transportation.

 

At December 31, 2012, we served approximately 562,000 subscribers. We increased our net subscribers by 16% from December 31, 2011 to December 31, 2012. We count "subscribers" based on the number of devices that are subject to agreements which entitle them to use our voice or data communications services rather than the number of persons or entities who own or lease those devices.

 

We currently provide the following communications services via satellite:

two-way voice communication and data transmissions, which we call “Duplex,” between mobile or fixed devices; and
one-way data transmissions between a mobile or fixed device that transmits its location and other information to a central monitoring station, which includes the SPOT family of consumer market products (“SPOT”) and Simplex products.

  

Our services are available only with equipment designed to work on our network. The equipment we offer to our customers consists principally of:

Duplex products, including voice and two-way data;
Consumer retail SPOT products; and
Commercial Simplex one-way transmission products.

 

We designed our second-generation constellation to support our current lineup of Duplex, SPOT family (SPOT Satellite GPS Messenger and SPOT Connect) and Simplex data products. With the improvement in both coverage and service quality for our Duplex product offerings resulting from the deployment of our second-generation constellation, we anticipate an expansion of our subscriber base and increases in our average revenue per user, or “ARPU.”

 

Our products and services are sold through a variety of independent agents, dealers and resellers, and independent gateway operators (“IGOs”). Our success in marketing these products and services is enhanced through diversification of our distribution channels, consumer and commercial markets, and product offerings.

 

Duplex Two-Way Voice and Data Products

 

Mobile Voice and Data Satellite Communications Services and Equipment

 

We provide mobile voice and data services to a wide variety of commercial, government and recreational customers for remote business continuity, recreational, emergency response and other applications. Subscribers under these plans typically pay an initial activation fee to an agent or dealer, a monthly usage fee to us that entitles the customer to a fixed or unlimited number of minutes, and fees for additional services such as voicemail, call forwarding, short messaging, email, data compression and internet access. Extra fees may also apply for non-voice services, roaming and long-distance. We regularly monitor our service offerings in accordance with customer demands and market changes and offer pricing plans such as bundled minutes, annual plans and unlimited plans.

 

We offer our services for use only with equipment designed to work on our network, which users generally purchase in conjunction with an initial service plan. We offer the GSP-1700 phone, which includes a user-friendly color LCD screen and a variety of accessories. The phone design represents a significant improvement over earlier-generation equipment that we believe will facilitate increased adoption from prospective users, as well as increased revenue from our existing subscribers as we place our final second-generation satellites into service. We also believe that the GSP-1700 is among the smallest, lightest and least-expensive satellite phones available. We are the only MSS provider using the patented Qualcomm CDMA technology that we believe provides superior voice quality when compared to competitive handsets.

 

Fixed Voice and Data Satellite Communications Services

 

We provide fixed voice and data services in rural villages, at remote industrial, commercial and residential sites and on ships at sea, among other places, primarily with our GSP-2900 fixed phone. Fixed voice and data satellite communications services are in many cases an attractive alternative to mobile satellite communications services in environments where multiple users will access the service within a defined geographic area and cellular or ground phone service is not available. Our fixed units also may be mounted on vehicles, barges and construction equipment and benefit from the ability to have higher gain antennas. Our fixed voice and data service plans are similar to our mobile voice and data plans and offer similar flexibility. In addition to offering monthly service plans, our fixed phones can be configured as pay phones installed at a central location, for example, in a rural village.

 

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Satellite Data Modem Services

 

In addition to data utilization through fixed and mobile services described above, we offer data-only services. Duplex devices have two-way transmission capabilities. Asset-tracking applications enable customers to control directly their remote assets and perform complex monitoring activities. We offer asynchronous and packet data service in all of our Duplex territories. Customers can use our products to access the internet, corporate virtual private networks and other customer specific data centers. Our satellite data modems can be activated under any of our current pricing plans. Satellite data modems are accessible in every Duplex region we serve. We provide store-and-forward capabilities to customers who do not require real-time transmission and reception of data. Additionally, we offer a data acceleration and compression service to the satellite data modem market. This service increases web-browsing, email and other data transmission speeds without any special equipment or hardware. 

 

Qualcomm GSP-1720 Satellite Voice and Data Modem

 

The GSP-1720 is a satellite voice and data modem board with multiple antenna configurations and an enlarged set of commands for modem control. This board is attractive to integrators because it has more user interfaces that are easily programmable. This makes it easier for value added resellers to integrate the satellite modem processing with the specific application, such as monitoring and controlling oil and gas pumps, electric power plants and other remote facilities.

 

New Products, Services and the Next-Generation IMS Ground Network

 

We have a contract with Hughes Network Systems, LLC (“Hughes”) under which Hughes will design, supply and implement (a) the Radio Access Network ("RAN") ground network equipment and software upgrades for installation at a number of our satellite gateway ground stations and (b) satellite interface chips to be a part of the User Terminal Subsystem (“UTS”) in our various next-generation Globalstar devices. These upgrades will be part of our next-generation ground network.

 

We also have a contract with Ericsson, Inc. (“Ericsson”) to work with us to develop, implement and maintain a ground interface, or core network, system that will be installed at our satellite gateway ground stations. The core network system is wireless 3G/4G compatible and will link our radio access network to the public-switched telephone network (“PSTN”) and/or Internet.  This new core network system will be part of our next-generation ground network.

 

Our second-generation constellation, when combined with our next-generation ground network, is designed to provide our customers with enhanced future services featuring increased data speeds of up to 256 kbps in a flexible Internet protocol multimedia subsystem (“IMS”) configuration. We will be able to support multiple products and services, including multicasting; advanced messaging capabilities such as Multimedia Messaging Service (“MMS”); geo-location services; multi-band and multi-mode handsets; and data devices with GPS integration.

 

Direct Sales, Dealers and Resellers

 

Our sales group is responsible for conducting direct sales with key accounts and for managing indirect agent, dealer and reseller relationships in assigned territories in the countries in which we operate.

 

The reseller channel for Duplex equipment and service is comprised primarily of communications equipment, retailer companies, and commercial communications equipment rental companies that retain and bill clients directly, outside of our billing system. Many of our resellers specialize in niche vertical markets where high-use customers are concentrated. We have sales arrangements with major resellers to market our services, including some value added resellers that integrate our products into their proprietary end products or applications.

  

Our typical dealer is a communications services business-to-business equipment retailer. We offer competitive service and equipment commissions to our network of dealers to encourage sales.

 

In addition to sales through our distribution managers, agents, dealers and resellers, customers can place orders through our existing sales force and through our direct e-commerce website.

 

SPOT Family of Consumer Retail Products

 

We have differentiated ourselves from other MSS providers by offering affordable, high utility mobile satellite products that appeal to the mainstream consumer market. With the 2009 acquisition of satellite asset tracking and consumer messaging products manufacturer Axonn LLC (“Axonn”), we believe we are the only vertically integrated mobile satellite company, which results in decreased pre-production costs and shorter time to market for our retail consumer products.  During 2012, our consumer retail product lineup consisted primarily of the SPOT Satellite GPS Messenger and the SPOT Connect. We anticipate introducing additional SPOT products during 2013 that will further drive sales, subscriber and revenue growth. Since their introduction, our SPOT products have been responsible for initiating over 2,100 rescues in over 70 countries and at sea. We do not believe that there is any competitive product on the market that can match those impressive numbers.

  

3
 

 

SPOT Satellite GPS Messenger

 

We have targeted our SPOT Satellite GPS Messenger to recreational and commercial markets that require personal tracking, emergency location and messaging solutions that operate beyond the reach of terrestrial, wireless and wireline coverage. Using our network and web-based mapping software, this device provides consumers with the ability to trace geographically or map the location of individuals or equipment. The product also enables users to transmit messages to a specific preprogrammed email address, phone or data device, including a request for assistance and an “SOS” message in the event of an emergency.

 

We market our SPOT Satellite GPS Messenger products and services in the U.S. and Canada, as well as in our overseas markets, including South and Central America, Western Europe, and through independent gateway operators in their respective territories.

 

We began commercial sales of the first SPOT products and services in November 2007 when we introduced the SPOT Personal Tracker. We introduced an updated version of this product, the SPOT Satellite GPS Messenger (“SPOT 2”) in July 2009. We believe the sales volumes of SPOT products and services to date show a viable market for affordable emergency and tracking functionality worldwide.

 

SPOT Connect

 

In January 2011, we introduced SPOT Connect, a one-way messaging device capable of sending customized messages over our satellite network from smartphones or similar “smart” devices such as tablets. SPOT Connect provides connectivity to our customers for sending location-based messages from areas either within or outside of cellular phone coverage. After downloading the SPOT Connect app on a device, the user’s SPOT Connect wirelessly synchs via Bluetooth with a smartphone’s operating system. SPOT message features are then initiated using the SPOT Connect app. Users can then type and send text messages from anywhere within our global coverage area. SPOT Connect also provides traditional SPOT functionality, including emergency assistance, messaging, and tracking.  This product currently supports both Apple® and Android® platforms.

 

Product Distribution

 

We distribute and sell our SPOT products through a variety of distribution channels. We have also expanded our distribution channels through product alliances. We have distribution relationships with a number of "Big Box" retailers and other similar distribution channels including Amazon.com, Bass Pro Shops, Best Buy, Big 5 Sporting Goods, Big Rock Sports, Cabela's, Campmor, Wholesale Sports, London Drugs, Outdoor and More, Gander Mountain, REI, Sportsman's Warehouse, West Marine, and CWR Electronics. We also sell SPOT products and services directly using our existing sales force and through our direct e-commerce website.

 

Commercial Simplex One-Way Transmission Products

 

Simplex service is a one-way burst data transmission from a commercial Simplex device over the Globalstar System that can be used to track and monitor assets. Our subscribers presently use our Simplex devices to track cargo containers and rail cars; to monitor utility meters; as well as a host of other applications. At the heart of the Simplex service is a demodulator and RF interface, called an appliqué, which is located at a gateway and an application server located in our facilities. The appliqué-equipped gateways provide coverage over vast areas of the globe. The server receives and collates messages from all Simplex telemetry devices transmitting over our satellite network. Simplex devices consist of a telemetry unit, an application specific sensor, a battery and optional global positioning functionality. The small size of the devices makes them attractive for use in tracking asset shipments, monitoring unattended remote assets, trailer tracking and mobile security. Current users include various governmental agencies, including the Federal Emergency Management Agency (“FEMA”), the U.S. Army, the U.S. Air Force and the Mexican Ministry of Education, as well as other organizations, including General Electric, Dell and The Salvation Army.

  

We designed our Simplex service to address the market for a small and cost-effective solution for sending data, such as geographic coordinates, from assets or individuals in remote locations to a central monitoring station. Customers are able to realize an efficiency advantage from tracking assets on a single global system as compared to several regional systems. Our Simplex services are currently available worldwide and are served by gateways in the United States, Canada, France, Venezuela, Mexico, Turkey, South Korea, Australia, Singapore, Peru, Nigeria, and Brazil.

 

We offer a small module called STX-2 Satellite Transmitter which enables an integrator’s product designs to access our Simplex network. We also offer complete products that utilize the STX-2 Satellite Transmitter. Our Simplex units, including the enterprise products MMT and SMARTONE, are used worldwide by industrial, commercial and government customers. These products provide cost-effective, low power, ultra-reliable, secure monitoring that help solve a variety of security applications and asset tracking challenges.

 

The reseller channel for Simplex equipment and service is comprised primarily of communications equipment retailer companies and commercial communications equipment rental companies that retain and bill clients directly, outside of our billing system. Many of our resellers specialize in niche vertical markets where high-use customers are concentrated. We have sales arrangements with major resellers to market our services, including some value added resellers that integrate our STX-2, or our products based on it, into their proprietary solutions designed to meet certain specialized niche market applications.

 

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Independent Gateway Operators

 

Our wholesale operations encompass primarily bulk sales of wholesale minutes to IGOs around the globe. IGOs maintain their own subscriber bases that are mostly exclusive to us and promote their own service plans. The IGO system allows us to expand in regions that hold significant growth potential but are harder to serve without sufficient operational scale or where local regulatory requirements do not permit us to operate directly.

 

Currently, 12 of the 24 active gateways in our network are owned and operated by unaffiliated companies, some of whom operate more than one gateway. Except for the gateway in Nigeria, in which we hold a 30% equity interest, and Globalstar Asia Pacific, our joint venture in South Korea in which we hold a 49% equity interest, we have no financial interest in these IGOs other than arms’ length contracts for wholesale minutes of service. Some of these IGOs have been unable to grow their businesses adequately due in part to limited resources and the prior inability of our constellation to provide reliable Duplex service. With the completion of our second-generation constellation, we expect the IGOs to grow their businesses significantly in the future.

 

Set forth below is a list of IGOs as of December 31, 2012:

 

Location   Gateway   Independent Gateway Operators
Argentina   Bosque Alegre   TE.SA.M Argentina
Australia   Dubbo   Pivotel Group PTY Limited
Australia   Mount Isa   Pivotel Group PTY Limited
Australia   Meekatharra   Pivotel Group PTY Limited
South Korea   Yeo Ju   Globalstar Asia Pacific
Mexico   San Martin   Globalstar de Mexico
Nigeria   Kaduna   Globaltouch (West Africa) Limited
Peru   Lurin   TE.SA.M Peru
Russia   Khabarovsk   GlobalTel
Russia   Moscow   GlobalTel
Russia   Novosibirsk   GlobalTel
Turkey   Ogulbey   Globalstar Avrasya

 

We currently hold two gateways in storage that we are actively marketing for future deployment in new territories. 

 

Other Services

 

We also provide certain engineering services to assist customers in developing new applications related to our system. These services include hardware and software designs to develop specific applications operating over our network, as well as, the installation of gateways and antennas.

 

Our Spectrum and Regulatory Structure

 

Globalstar has access to a world-wide allocation of radio frequency spectrum through the international radio frequency tables administered by the International Telecommunications Union (“ITU”). We believe access to this global spectrum enables us to design satellites, network and terrestrial infrastructure enhancements more cost effectively because the products and services can be deployed and sold worldwide. In addition, this broad spectrum assignment enhances our ability to capitalize on existing and emerging wireless and broadband applications.

 

First Generation Constellation

 

In the United States, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”) has authorized us to operate our first-generation satellites in 25.225 MHz of radio spectrum comprising two blocks of non-contiguous radio frequencies in the 1.6/2.4 GHz band commonly referred to as the Big LEO Spectrum Band. Specifically, the FCC has authorized us to operate between 1610-1618.725 MHz for “Uplink” communications from mobile earth terminals to our satellites and between 2483.5-2500 MHz for “Downlink” communications from our satellites to our mobile earth terminals. The FCC has also authorized us to operate our four domestic gateways with our first-generation satellites in the 5091-5250 and 6875-7055 MHz bands.

 

Three of our subsidiaries hold our FCC licenses. Globalstar Licensee LLC holds our mobile satellite services license. GUSA Licensee LLC (“GUSA”) is authorized by the FCC to distribute mobile and fixed subscriber terminals and to operate gateways in the United States. GUSA holds the licenses for our gateways in Texas, Florida and Alaska. Another subsidiary, GCL Licensee LLC (“GCL”), holds an FCC license to operate a gateway in Puerto Rico. GCL is also subject to regulation by the Puerto Rican regulatory agency.

 

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Second-Generation Constellation

 

We licensed and registered our second-generation constellation in France. In October 2010, the French Ministry for the Economy, Industry and Employment authorized Globalstar Europe SARL, now Globalstar Europe SAS (“Globalstar Europe”), our wholly owned subsidiary, to operate our second-generation constellation.  In November 2010, ARCEP, the French independent administrative authority of post and electronic communications regulations, granted a license to Globalstar Europe to provide mobile satellite service.

 

The French National Frequencies Agency (“ANFR”) is representing us before the ITU for purposes of receiving assignments of orbital positions and conducting international coordination efforts to address any interference concerns. ANFR submitted the technical papers to the ITU on our behalf in July 2009. As with the first-generation constellation, the ITU will require us to coordinate our spectrum assignments with other companies that use any portion of our spectrum bands. We cannot predict how long the coordination process will take; however, we are able to use the frequencies during the coordination process in accordance with our national licenses.

 

The FCC has authorized us to operate our domestic gateways with our second-generation satellites. Further, the French Ministry in charge of space operations has issued us final authorization and has undertaken the registration of our second-generation satellites with the United Nation as provided under the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space. In accordance with this authorization to operate the second-generation satellite constellation, we are currently on schedule to enhance the existing gateway operations in Aussaguel, France to include satellite operations and control functions during 2013.

 

Our current Non-Geostationary Satellite Orbit (“NGSO”) satellite constellation license issued by the FCC is valid until April 2013. We have filed an application to modify and extend this license. Under the FCC’s rules, we may continue to operate our constellation beyond April 2013 pending the FCC’s approval of our application. This license application applies only to our continued use of our first-generation satellites.

 

Potential Terrestrial Use of Globalstar Spectrum

 

In February 2003, the FCC adopted rules that permit satellite service providers such as Globalstar to establish terrestrial networks utilizing the ancillary terrestrial component (“ATC”) of their licensed spectrum.  ATC authorization enables the integration of a satellite-based service with terrestrial wireless services, resulting in a hybrid mobile satellite services/ATC network designed to provide advanced services and broad coverage throughout the United States. An ATC deployment could extend our services to urban areas and inside buildings where satellite services are currently not available, as well as to rural and remote areas that lack terrestrial wireless services.

 

In order to establish an ATC network, a satellite service provider must first meet certain specified requirements commonly known as the “gating criteria.”  These criteria require us to provide continuous coverage over the United States and have an in-orbit spare satellite. Additionally, ATC services must be complementary or ancillary to mobile satellite services in an "integrated service offering," which can be achieved by using "dual-mode" devices capable of transmitting and receiving mobile satellite and ATC signals, or providing “other evidence” that the satellite service provider meets the requirement. Further, user subscriptions that include ATC services must also include mobile satellite services. Because of these requirements, the number of potential early stage competitors in providing ATC services is limited, as only mobile satellite services operators who offer commercial satellite services can provide ATC services.

 

In January 2006, the FCC granted our application to add an ATC service to our existing mobile satellite services. In April 2008, the FCC issued a decision extending our ATC authorization from 11MHz to a total of 19.275 MHz of our spectrum. Outside the United States, other countries are considering implementing regulations to facilitate ATC services. We expect to pursue ATC licenses in jurisdictions such as Canada and the European Community as market conditions dictate.

 

In July 2010, the FCC instituted a rulemaking proceeding and notice of inquiry to consider whether certain gating criteria should be revised or eliminated so as to permit satellite operators to exercise greater flexibility in utilizing ATC. Interested parties, including Globalstar, filed comments in these proceedings in September 2010. In these proceedings, we have proposed the elimination of, or substantial modifications to, the existing gating criteria. We continue our active participation in these proceedings. In addition, other MSS providers have requested waivers of certain gating criteria, including the “integrated service offering” requirement, so as to permit such providers to offer terrestrial-only services over their MSS frequency allocations. These MSS providers include LightSquared Subsidiary, LLC, New DBSD Satellite Service G.P. and TerreStar Licensee Inc. We actively participate in these proceedings to seek equal treatment for all MSS providers with respect to receiving any such relief. 

 

 In March 2012, the FCC issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, commencing a proceeding to eliminate the ATC regulatory regime as it applied to MSS operators in the 2 GHz band, namely DISH Network Corporation, and formerly DBSD and TerreStar. Therein, the FCC recommended replacing the ATC regime and establishing a separate terrestrial license, AWS-4, to operate terrestrial wireless services over this spectrum that was once used exclusively for MSS. In support of its recommendations to eliminate the ATC regime, the FCC noted that the ATC regime had failed to produce the public benefits that had been anticipated when the regime was enacted in 2003. In December of 2012, the FCC issued a final order in this proceeding in which it adopted its proposed rules for the 2 GHz band, eliminating the ATC regime and creating an AWS-4 terrestrial license for the holder of the 2 GHz MSS license. Henceforth the AWS-4 license will be regulated under the more flexible Part 27 regulatory rules and allow the provision of any wireless terrestrial services permitted by the FCC.

 

6
 

 

On November 13, 2012, we filed a petition for rulemaking with the FCC, requesting that we be granted regulatory flexibility to offer terrestrial wireless services, including mobile broadband services, over 19.275 MHz of our exclusively licensed Big LEO spectrum allocation. In our petition, we proposed a “near-term” plan for terrestrial relief in the 11.5 MHz of our “downlink” spectrum at 2483.5-2495 MHz to offer innovative services such as a proposed Terrestrial Low Power Service (“TLPS”). Under this proposal, we would utilize both our exclusively licensed 11.5 MHz of MSS spectrum at 2483.5 to 2495 MHz, as well as the contiguous 10.5 MHz of unlicensed Industrial, Scientific and Medical (“ISM”) spectrum located at 2473 to 2483.5 MHz to provide a carrier-grade fourth non overlapping 22 MHz channel under the IEEE 802.11 standard where most WiFi use currently exists. Significantly, we propose to use the 10.5 MHz of unlicensed ISM spectrum on a non-exclusive basis with no special protections against interference from adjacent bands.

 

Additionally, we have also proposed in our petition for rulemaking a “long-term” plan to obtain authority over our exclusively licensed spectrum at 1610-1617.775 MHz in order to provide additional mobile broadband services based on the Long Term Evolution (“LTE”) standard. During 2013, we will actively prosecute our petition for rulemaking before the FCC.

 

National Regulation of Service Providers

 

In order to operate gateways, applicable laws and regulations require the IGOs and our affiliates in each country to obtain a license from that country's telecommunications regulatory authority. In addition, the gateway operator must enter into appropriate interconnection and financial settlement agreements with local and interexchange telecommunications providers. All 24 active gateways, which we and the IGOs operate, are licensed.

 

Our subscriber equipment generally must be type certified in countries in which it is sold or leased. The manufacturers of the equipment and our affiliates or IGOs are jointly responsible for securing type certification. We have received type certification in multiple countries for each of our products.

 

Satellites

 

We launched our first-generation satellite constellation in the late 1990’s. These satellites have experienced various anomalies over time, including degradation in the performance of the solid-state power amplifiers which adversely affects the ability of these satellites to provide Duplex services. This degradation does not adversely affect the first-generation satellites ability to provide our one-way SPOT and Simplex data transmission services, which use only the uplink band from a subscriber’s equipment to our satellites. We have launched spare first-generation satellites to provide support for our Duplex, Simplex and SPOT services.

  

In 2006 we entered into agreements for the design, manufacture, delivery and launch of a second-generation constellation of satellites. We have successfully launched all of these second-generation satellites, with the final launch occurring on February 6, 2013. We designed our second-generation satellites to support our current lineup of Duplex, SPOT, and Simplex products and services, and these satellites are backwards compatible with our first-generation ground network and satellites, as well as forward compatible with our second-generation ground network.

 

  We designed the second-generation satellites to have a 15-year life from the date the satellites are first positioned into their operational orbits, twice the useful life of the first-generation satellites. This is achieved by increasing the solar array and battery capacity, using a larger fuel tank, more redundancy for key satellite equipment, and improved radiation specifications and additional lot level testing for all susceptible electronic components, in order to account for the accumulated dosage of radiation encountered during a 15-year mission at the operational altitude of the satellites. In order to avoid the radiation issues that affected the first-generation satellites, the second-generation satellites use passive S-band antennas on the body of the spacecraft providing additional shielding for the active amplifiers which are located inside the spacecraft, unlike the first-generation amplifiers that were located on the outside as part of the active antenna array.

 

Each satellite has a high degree of on-board subsystem redundancy, an on-board fault detection system and isolation and recovery for safe and quick risk mitigation. Our ability to reconfigure the orbital location of each satellite provides us with operating flexibility and continuity of service. The design of our space segment and primary and secondary ground control system facilitates the real-time intervention and management of the satellite constellation and service upgrades via hardware and software enhancements.

 

Today we have adequate satellites to provide Simplex service and expect this service level to continue for the foreseeable future. To continue the expansion of our current Duplex service, we have added and continue to add additional second-generation satellites to our constellation as discussed above.

 

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Ground Network

 

Our satellites communicate with a network of 24 active gateways, each of which serves an area of approximately 700,000 to 1,000,000 square miles. The design of our orbital planes ensures that generally at least one satellite is visible from any point on the earth's surface between 70° north latitude and 70° south latitude. A gateway must be within line-of-sight of a satellite and the satellite must be within line-of-sight of the subscriber to provide services. We have positioned our gateways to cover most of the world's land and population. We own 12 of these gateways and the rest are owned by IGOs. In addition, we have spare parts in storage, including antennas and gateway electronic equipment, including two un-deployed stored gateways.

 

Each of our gateways has multiple antennas that communicate with our satellites and pass calls seamlessly between antenna beams and satellites as the satellites traverse the gateways, thereby reflecting the signals from our users' terminals to our gateways. Once a satellite acquires a signal from an end-user, the Globalstar System authenticates the user and establishes the voice or data channel to complete the call to the public switched telephone network, to a cellular or another wireless network or to the internet (for a data call including Simplex).

 

We believe that our terrestrial gateways provide a number of advantages over the in-orbit switching used by our main competitor, including better call quality, reduced call latency and convenient regionalized local phone numbers for inbound and outbound calling. We also believe that our network's design, which relies on terrestrial gateways rather than in-orbit switching, enables faster and more cost-effective system maintenance and upgrades because the system's software and much of its hardware is based on the ground. Our multiple gateways allow us to reconfigure our system quickly to extend another gateway's coverage to make up some or all of the coverage of a disabled gateway or to handle increased call capacity resulting from surges in demand.

  

Our network uses Qualcomm's patented CDMA technology to permit diversity combining of the strongest available signals. Patented receivers in our handsets track the pilot channel or signaling channel as well as three additional communications channels simultaneously. Compared to other satellite and network architectures, we offer superior call clarity with virtually no discernible delay. Our system architecture provides full frequency re-use. This maximizes diversity (which maximizes quality) and capacity as we can reuse the assigned spectrum in every satellite beam in every satellite. Our network also works with internet protocol (“IP”) data for reliable transmission of IP messages.

 

 We designed our second-generation satellites to support our current lineup of Duplex, SPOT, and Simplex products and services, and to be backwards compatible with our first-generation ground network and satellites, as well as forward compatible with our second-generation ground network.

 

Although our network is currently CDMA-based, it is configured so that it can also support one or more other air interfaces that we may select in the future. For example, we have developed a non-Qualcomm proprietary CDMA technology for our SPOT and Simplex services. Because our satellites are essentially "mirrors in the sky," and all of our network's switches and hardware are located on the ground, we can easily and relatively inexpensively modify our ground hardware and software to use other wave forms to meet customer demands for new and innovative services and products.

 

We own and operate gateways in the United States, Canada, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, France, Brazil and Singapore. We also own a gateway in Nicaragua that we have temporarily suspended from service.

 

In 2007, we entered into an agreement with Globaltouch (West Africa) Limited to construct and operate a gateway in Kaduna, Nigeria, for which Globaltouch has paid us $8.4 million. This gateway has been fully operational for SPOT and Simplex service since November 2009. We plan to complete the construction and introduce Duplex service at this gateway after our second-generation constellation becomes fully operational.

 

In 2008, we completed the construction of a gateway in Singapore at a total cost of approximately $4.0 million. This gateway has been fully operational for SPOT and Simplex service since October 2008. We plan to introduce Duplex service at this gateway when our second-generation constellation becomes fully operational. We have contracted with SingTel to operate this gateway on our behalf.

  

In January 2012, we signed a letter of intent with Shahad Al Sahra Trading Est. (SAS), for SAS's ownership and operation of a satellite gateway ground station located in Saudi Arabia and the establishment of a Satellite Services Agreement. Globalstar and SAS expect to enter into definitive agreements in the near future and request the necessary licensing approvals from the Saudi Arabian telecommunications regulatory agency.

 

Industry

 

We compete in the mobile satellite services sector of the global communications industry. Mobile satellite service operators provide voice and data services using a network of one or more satellites and associated ground facilities. Mobile satellite services are usually complementary to, and interconnected with, other forms of terrestrial communications services and infrastructure and are intended to respond to users' desires for connectivity at all times and locations. Customers typically use satellite voice and data communications in situations where existing terrestrial wireline and wireless communications networks are impaired or do not exist.

 

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Worldwide, government organizations, military, natural disaster aid associations, event-driven response agencies and corporate security teams depend on mobile and fixed voice and data communications services on a regular basis. Businesses with global operating scope require communications services when operating in remote locations around the world. Mobile satellite services users span the forestry, maritime, government, oil and gas, mining, leisure, emergency services, construction and transportation sectors, among others. We believe many such customers increasingly view satellite communications services as critical to their daily operations.

  

Over the past two decades, the global mobile satellite services market has experienced significant growth. Increasingly, better-tailored, improved-technology products and services are creating new channels of demand for mobile satellite services. Growth in demand for mobile satellite voice services is driven by the declining cost of these services, the diminishing size and lower costs of the handsets, as well as, heightened demand by governments, businesses and individuals for ubiquitous global voice coverage. Growth in mobile satellite data services is driven by the rollout of new applications requiring higher bandwidth, as well as low cost data collection and asset tracking devices.

 

Communications industry sectors that are relevant to our business include:

mobile satellite services, which provide customers with connectivity to mobile and fixed devices using a network of satellites and ground facilities;
fixed satellite services, which use geostationary satellites to provide customers with voice and broadband communications links between fixed points on the earth's surface; and
terrestrial services, which use a terrestrial network to provide wireless or wireline connectivity and are complementary to satellite services.

 

Within the major satellite sectors, fixed satellite services and mobile satellite services operators differ significantly from each other. Fixed satellite services providers, such as Intelsat Ltd., Eutelsat Communications and SES S.A., and aperture terminals companies, such as Hughes and Gilat Satellite Networks, are characterized by large, often stationary or "fixed," ground terminals that send and receive high-bandwidth signals to and from the satellite network for video and high speed data customers and international telephone markets. On the other hand, mobile satellite services providers, such as Globalstar, Inmarsat P.L.C. (“Inmarsat”) and Iridium Communications, Inc. (“Iridium”), focus more on voice and data services (including data services which track the location of remote assets such as shipping containers), where mobility or small sized terminals are essential. As mobile satellite terminals begin to offer higher bandwidth to support a wider range of applications, we expect mobile satellite services operators will increasingly compete with fixed satellite services operators.

 

LEO systems, such as the systems we and Iridium currently operate, reduce transmission delay compared to a geosynchronous system due to the shorter distance signals have to travel. In addition, LEO systems are less prone to signal blockage and, consequently, we believe provide a better overall quality of service.

 

Competition

 

The global communications industry is highly competitive. We currently face substantial competition from other service providers that offer a range of mobile and fixed communications options. Our most direct competition comes from other global mobile satellite services providers. Our two largest global competitors are Inmarsat and Iridium. We compete primarily on the basis of coverage, quality, portability and pricing of services and products.

  

Inmarsat owns and operates a fleet of geostationary satellites. Due to its multiple-satellite geostationary system, Inmarsat's coverage area extends to and covers most bodies of water more completely than we do. Accordingly, Inmarsat is the leading provider of satellite communications services to the maritime sector. Inmarsat also offers global land-based and aeronautical communications services. Inmarsat generally does not sell directly to customers. Rather, it markets its products and services principally through a variety of distributors, who, in most cases, sell to additional downstream entities who sell to the ultimate customer. We compete with Inmarsat in several key areas, particularly in our maritime markets. Inmarsat has launched a mobile handset designed to compete with both Iridium’s mobile handset service and our GSP-1700 handset service.

 

Iridium owns and operates a fleet of low earth orbit satellites that is similar to our network of satellites. Iridium provides voice and data communications to businesses, United States and foreign governments, non-governmental organizations and consumers. Iridium sells its products and services to commercial end users through a wholesale distribution network. We have faced increased competition from Iridium in some of our target markets. During 2011, Iridium introduced a product that delivers remote communication features including send and receive text messaging, interactive SOS, and message delivery information.

 

We compete with regional mobile satellite communications services in several markets. In these cases, our competitors serve customers who require regional, not global, mobile voice and data services, so our competitors present a viable alternative to our services. All of these competitors operate geostationary satellites. Our regional mobile satellite services competitors currently include Thuraya, principally in the Middle East and Africa and ACeS (now operated by Inmarsat) in Asia.

   

In some of our markets, such as rural telephony, we compete directly or indirectly with very small aperture terminal (“VSAT”) operators that offer communications services through private networks using very small aperture terminals or hybrid systems to target business users. VSAT operators have become increasingly competitive due to technological advances that have resulted in smaller, more flexible and cheaper terminals.

 

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We compete indirectly with terrestrial wireline (“landline”) and wireless communications networks. We provide service in areas that are inadequately covered by these ground systems. To the extent that terrestrial communications companies invest in underdeveloped areas, we will face increased competition in those areas.

 

Our SPOT products compete indirectly with Personal Locator Beacons (“PLB”s). A variety of manufacturers offer PLBs to an industry specification.

 

Our industry has significant barriers to entry, including the cost and difficulty associated with obtaining spectrum licenses and successfully building and launching a satellite network. In addition to cost, there is a significant amount of lead-time associated with obtaining the required licenses, designing and building the satellite constellation and synchronizing the network technology. We will continue to face competition from Inmarsat and Iridium and other businesses that have developed global mobile satellite communications services in particular regions.

 

United States International Traffic in Arms Regulations

 

The United States International Traffic in Arms regulations under the United States Arms Export Control Act authorize the President of the United States to control the export and import of articles and services that can be used in the production of arms. The President has delegated this authority to the U.S. Department of State, Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. Among other things, these regulations limit the ability to export certain articles and related technical data to certain nations. Some information involved in the performance of our operations falls within the scope of these regulations. As a result, we may have to obtain an export authorization or restrict access to that information by international companies that are our vendors or service providers. We have received and expect to continue to receive export licenses for our telemetry and control equipment located outside the United States and for providing technical data to Arianespace and the developers of our next generation of satellites.

 

Environmental Matters

 

We are subject to various laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment and human health and safety (including those governing the management, storage and disposal of hazardous materials). Some of our operations require continuous power supply. As a result, current and historical operations at our ground facilities, including our gateways, include storing fuel and batteries, which may contain hazardous materials, to power back-up generators. As an owner or operator of property and in connection with our current and historical operations, we could incur significant costs, including cleanup costs, fines, sanctions and third-party claims, as a result of violations of or in connection with liabilities under environmental laws and regulations.

 

Customers

 

The specialized needs of our global customers span many markets. Our system is able to offer our customers cost-effective communications solutions in areas unserved or underserved by existing telecommunications infrastructures. Although traditional users of wireless telephony and broadband data services have access to these services in developed locations, our targeted customers often operate, travel to or live in remote regions or regions with under-developed telecommunications infrastructure where these services are not readily available or are not provided on a reliable basis.

 

Our top revenue generating markets in the United States and Canada are (i) government (including federal, state and local agencies), public safety and disaster relief, (ii) recreation and personal and (iii) telecommunications. These markets comprised 21%, 18% and 5%, respectively, of our total subscribers tracked by segment in the United States and Canada at December 31, 2012. We also serve customers in the maritime and fishing, oil and gas, natural resources (mining and forestry), and construction, utilities markets, and transportation, which together comprised approximately 21% of our total subscribers tracked by segment in the United States and Canada at December 31, 2012.

 

No one customer was responsible for more than 10% of our revenue in 2012, 2011, or 2010.

  

Domestic/Foreign

 

We supply services and products to a number of foreign customers. Although most of our sales are denominated in U.S. dollars, we are exposed to currency risk for sales in Canada, Europe, Brazil and other countries. In 2012, approximately 29% of our sales were denominated in foreign currencies. See Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding revenue by country.

 

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Intellectual Property

 

We hold various U.S. and foreign patents and patents pending that expire between 2013 and 2030. These patents cover many aspects of our satellite system, our global network and our user terminals. In recent years, we have reduced our foreign filings and allowed some previously-granted foreign patents to lapse based on (a) the significance of the patent, (b) our assessment of the likelihood that someone would infringe in the foreign country, and (c) the probability that we could or would enforce the patent in light of the expense of filing and maintaining the foreign patent which, in some countries, is quite substantial. We continue to maintain all of the patents in the United States, Canada and Europe which we believe are important to our business. Our intellectual property is pledged as security for our obligations under our senior secured credit facility agreement (“Facility Agreement”).

 

Employees

 

As of December 31, 2012, we had 267 employees, 16 of whom were located in Brazil and subject to collective bargaining agreements. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good.

 

Seasonality

 

Usage on the network, and to some extent sales, are subject to seasonal and situational changes. April through October are typically our peak months for service revenues and equipment sales. Most notably, emergencies, natural disasters, and sizable projects where satellite based communications devices are the only solution. In the consumer area, SPOT devices are subject to outdoor and leisure activity opportunities, as well as our promotional efforts.

 

Services and Equipment

 

Sales of services accounted for approximately 75%, 76% and 75% of our total revenues for 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively. We also sell the related voice and data equipment to our customers, which accounted for approximately 25%, 24% and 25% of our total revenues for 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively.

 

Company History

 

Our first-generation network, originally owned by Globalstar, L.P. (“Old Globalstar”), was designed, built and launched in the late 1990s by a technology partnership led by Loral Space and Communications (“Loral”) and Qualcomm Incorporated (“Qualcomm”). In 2002, Old Globalstar filed voluntary petitions under Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code. In 2004, we completed the acquisition of the business and assets of Old Globalstar. Thermo Capital Partners LLC, which owns and operates companies in diverse business sectors and is referred to in this Report, together with its affiliates, as "Thermo," became our principal owner in this transaction. We were formed as a Delaware limited liability company in November 2003 and were converted into a Delaware corporation in March 2006.

 

In July 2010, we announced the relocation of our corporate headquarters to Covington, Louisiana. Our product development center, our international customer care operations, call center and other global business functions including finance, accounting, sales, marketing and corporate communications have also relocated to Louisiana.

  

Additional Information

 

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). You may read and copy any document we file with the SEC at the SEC's public reference room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for information on the public reference room. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy and information statements and other information that issuers (including Globalstar) file electronically with the SEC. Our electronic SEC filings are available to the public at the SEC's internet site, www.sec.gov.

 

We make available free of charge financial information, news releases, SEC filings, including our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to these reports as soon as reasonably practical after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC, on our website at www.globalstar.com. The documents available on, and the contents of, our website are not incorporated by reference into this Report.

 

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

 

You should carefully consider the risks described below, as well as all of the information in this Report and our other past and future filings with the SEC, in evaluating and understanding us and our business. Additional risks not presently known or that we currently deem immaterial may also impact our business operations and the risks identified below may adversely affect our business in ways we do not currently anticipate. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks.

 

Risks Related to Our Business

 

If we fail to obtain, on a timely basis, additional external financing, as well as amendments to and restructuring of our existing debt obligations and amendments to certain other contractual obligations, we may not be able to continue as a going concern.

 

Our current sources of liquidity include cash on hand ($11.8 million at December 31, 2012), cash flows from operations ($6.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2012), funds available under our Facility Agreement ($0.7 million at December 31, 2012, subject to certain restrictions, see further discussion below in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources), funds available from our Terrapin Opportunity, L.P. (“Terrapin”) equity line agreement ($30.0 million at December 31, 2012, subject to certain conditions precedent, see further discussion below in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources), interest earned from funds previously held in our contingent equity account ($1.1 million at December 31, 2012), and amounts held in our debt service reserve account ($8.9 million at December 31, 2012). These sources of liquidity are not sufficient to meet our existing contractual obligations over the next 12 months. As a result, there is substantial doubt that we can continue as a going concern if we do not raise additional external financing. In order to continue as a going concern, we must obtain additional external financing; amend the Facility Agreement and certain other contractual obligations; and restructure the 5.75% Convertible Senior Unsecured Notes (the “5.75% Notes”). In addition, substantial uncertainties remain related to our noncompliance with certain of the Facility Agreement’s covenants (see Note 4 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion) and the impact and timing of our plan to improve operating cash flows and to restructure our contractual obligations. If the resolution of these uncertainties materially and negatively impacts cash and liquidity, our ability to continue to execute our business plans will be adversely affected. Completion of the foregoing actions is not solely within our control and we may be unable to successfully complete one or all of these actions.

 

Our Facility Agreement contains events of default that may limit our operating and financial flexibility.

 

During the second quarter of 2012, we received two reservation of rights letters from the agent for the Facility Agreement identifying potential existing defaults of certain non-financial covenants in the Facility Agreement that may have occurred as a result of the Thales Alenia Space (“Thales”) arbitration ruling and the subsequent settlement agreements reached with Thales related to the arbitration discussed in Note 9 to our Consolidated Financial Statements. The letters indicated that the lenders were evaluating their position with respect to the potential defaults. During the evaluation process, the lenders did not permit funding of the remaining $3.0 million available under the Facility Agreement required for the remaining milestone payments to Thales on the second-generation satellites or allow us to draw funds from the contingent equity account.

 

On October 12, 2012, we entered into Waiver Letter No. 11 to the Facility Agreement, which permitted us to make a draw from the contingent equity account. In the waiver letter we acknowledged the lenders’ conclusion that events of default did occur as a result of our entering into settlement agreements with Thales related to the arbitration ruling. As of the date of this Report, the agent for the Facility Agreement has not notified us of the lenders’ intention to accelerate the debt; however, we have shown the borrowings as current on the December 31, 2012 balance sheet in accordance with applicable accounting rules. We are currently working with the lenders to obtain all necessary waivers or amendments associated with any default issues, but there can be no assurance that we will be successful. On October 24, 2012, the lenders permitted funding of $2.3 million of the amount available under the Facility Agreement to make a milestone payment to Thales. In November and December 2012, the lenders permitted us to withdraw funds available in the contingent equity account. The lenders currently are not permitting funding of the remaining $0.7 million available under the Facility Agreement.

 

Due to the launch delays, we expect that we may not be in compliance with certain financial and nonfinancial covenants specified in the Facility Agreement during the next 12 months.  If we cannot obtain either a waiver or an amendment, our failure to comply with these covenants would represent an additional event of default. An event of default under the Facility Agreement would permit the lenders to accelerate the indebtedness under the Facility Agreement. That acceleration would permit holders of our obligations under other agreements that contain cross-acceleration provisions to accelerate that indebtedness.

 

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An event of default may impair our ability to finance our operations or capital needs or to take advantage of other favorable business opportunities. If our indebtedness is accelerated, we may not be able to repay our indebtedness or borrow sufficient funds to refinance it. Even if we are able to obtain new financing, it may not be on commercially reasonable terms or on terms that are acceptable to us. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected and we might be required to seek protection under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. 

 

The implementation of our business plan and our ability to generate income from operations assume we are able to deploy and maintain a healthy constellation capable of providing commercially acceptable levels of coverage and service quality, which are contingent on a number of factors.

  

 In prior periods our ability to generate revenue and cash flow has been impacted adversely by our inability to offer commercially acceptable levels of Duplex service due to the degradation of our first-generation constellation. As a result, we improved the design of our second-generation constellation to last twice as long in space, have 40% greater capacity and be built at a significantly lower cost as compared to our first-generation constellation.

 

We depend on third parties to design, manufacture, deliver and launch our satellites. The health of our constellation depends on the construction and maintenance of these satellites, which are technically complex. For example, momentum wheels on certain second-generation satellites have exhibited anomalous behavior in orbit, necessitating the removal of the wheels from service. We worked with Thales to develop a software-based solution that permits the affected satellite to operate on as few as two momentum wheels. In October 2012, we successfully uploaded the AOCS software solution to the second-generation satellite that was previously taken out of service due to anomalous behavior of its momentum wheels. We placed this satellite back into service in November 2012. We can upload this software solution to any satellite that may experience similar anomalous behaviors with its momentum wheels. Other anomalies with our satellites may develop, and we cannot guarantee that we could successfully develop and implement a solution to them.

 

   Our ability to generate revenue and positive cash flow will depend upon our ability to maintain and operate all of our existing Duplex-capable satellites, maintain a sufficient number of subscribers, introduce new product and service offerings successfully, and compete successfully against other mobile satellite service providers to gain new subscribers.

 

We incurred operating losses in the past three years, and these losses are likely to continue.

 

We incurred operating losses of $95.0 million, $73.2 million and $59.8 million in 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively. These losses are largely a result of problems with our two-way communications services and the delay in launching our second-generation constellation. We expect that we will continue to incur operating losses as we attempt to regain our market position.

 

We have substantial contractual obligations and capital expenditure plans, which will require additional capital, the terms of which have not been arranged. The terms of our Facility Agreement could complicate raising this additional capital.

 

We plan to make expenditures related to our constellation and ground infrastructure, including internal labor costs and interest on outstanding debt, which we expect will be reflected in capital expenditures primarily through 2015. The nature of these purchases requires us to enter into long-term fixed price contracts. We could cancel some of these purchase commitments, subject to the incurrence of specified cancellation penalties. Our sources of liquidity are not sufficient to meet our existing contractual obligations over the next 12 months. We expect to fund planned capital expenditures through other financing, including proceeds from the issuance of additional equity or debt, not yet arranged. Restrictions in the Facility Agreement limit the types of financings we may undertake.

 

We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain this financing on reasonable terms or at all. If we cannot obtain it in a timely manner, we may be unable to execute our business plan and fulfill our financial commitments.

 

Restrictive covenants in our Facility Agreement may limit our operating and financial flexibility.

 

Our Facility Agreement contains a number of significant restrictions and covenants that limit our ability to:

 

incur or guarantee additional indebtedness;
pay dividends or make distributions to our stockholders;
make investments, acquisitions or capital expenditures;
repurchase or redeem capital stock or subordinated indebtedness;
grant liens on our assets;
incur restrictions on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends or to make other payments to us;
enter into transactions with our affiliates;
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merge or consolidate with other entities or transfer all or substantially all of our assets; and
transfer or sell assets.

 

Complying with these restrictive covenants, as well as the financial and other nonfinancial covenants in the Facility Agreement and certain of our other debt obligations, as well as those that may be contained in any agreements governing future indebtedness, may impair our ability to finance our operations or capital needs or to take advantage of other favorable business opportunities. Our ability to comply with these covenants will depend on our future performance, which may be affected by events beyond our control.

 

Our satellites have a limited life and will degrade over time, which may cause our network to be compromised and which may materially and adversely affect our business, prospects and profitability. We may not be able to procure additional second-generation satellites on reasonable terms.

 

Since our first satellites were launched in the 1990’s, some first-generation satellites have failed in orbit and have been retired, and we expect others to fail in the future. We consider a satellite "failed" only when it can no longer provide any communications service, and we do not intend to undertake any further efforts to return it to service or when the other satellite subsystems can no longer support operations. In-orbit failure may result from various causes, including component failure, loss of power or fuel, inability to control positioning of the satellite, solar or other astronomical events, including solar radiation and flares, the quality of construction, gradual degradation of solar panels, the durability of components, and collision with other satellites or space debris. Any of these causes, including radiation induced failure of satellite components, may result in damage to or loss of a satellite before the end of its currently expected life.

 

As a result of the issues described above, some of our in-orbit satellites may experience temporary outages or may not otherwise be fully functioning at any given time. There are some remote tools we use to remedy certain types of problems affecting the performance of our satellites, but the physical repair of satellites in space is not feasible. As it is not economically feasible, we do not insure our satellites against in-orbit failures after an initial period of six months, whether the failures are caused by internal or external factors.

 

As our second-generation constellation becomes fully operational, we may face challenges in maintaining our current subscriber base for two-way communications service because we plan to increase prices, consistent with market conditions, to reflect our improved two-way service and coverage. Further, as we fully deploy our second-generation constellation, we may eliminate the online forecasting tools as our Duplex coverage will be essentially complete and continuous throughout our service areas.

 

All satellites have a limited life and degrade over time. In order to maintain commercially acceptable service coverage long-term, we must obtain and launch additional satellites. As discussed in Note 9 to our Consolidated Financial Statements, we and Thales may negotiate the terms of a follow-on contract for additional satellites, but we can provide no assurance as to whether we will ultimately agree on commercial terms for such a purchase. If we are unable to agree with Thales on commercial terms for the purchase of additional satellites, we may enter into negotiations with one or more other satellite manufacturers, but we cannot provide any assurance that these negotiations will be successful either.

 

Our business plan to use a portion of our licensed MSS spectrum to provide terrestrial wireless services depends upon action by the FCC, which we cannot control.

 

Our business plan includes utilizing approximately 20 MHz of our licensed MSS spectrum to provide terrestrial wireless services, including mobile broadband applications, within the United States. In pursuit of these plans, we have petitioned the FCC for rulemaking to establish a separate terrestrial services license covering the MSS spectrum exclusively licensed to us and eliminating the ATC regulatory regime that currently restricts our ability to utilize our spectrum terrestrially. If the FCC does not accept our proposal, our anticipated future revenues and profitability could be reduced. We can provide no assurance that the FCC will undertake our requested actions or how long the regulatory process to obtain this relief will take. If we are unable achieve the rule changes discussed above, then our only ability to utilize our MSS spectrum for terrestrial applications will be pursuant to the existing ATC regulatory regime that requires many restrictive conditions called gating criteria.

 

Future regulatory decisions could reduce our existing spectrum allocation or impose additional spectrum sharing agreements on us, which could adversely affect our services and operations.

 

Under the FCC's plan for mobile satellite services in our frequency bands, we must share frequencies in the United States with other licensed mobile satellite services operators. To date, there are no other authorized CDMA-based mobile satellite services operators and no pending applications for authorization. However the FCC or other regulatory authorities may require us to share spectrum with other systems that are not currently licensed by the United States or any other jurisdiction. The FCC's decision in October 2008 to reduce the number of channels we have available in our lower band may impair our ability to grow over the long term. Similar future FCC decisions could substantially impair our ability to continue providing mobile satellite services in the United States and/or abroad.

 

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We registered our second-generation constellation with the ITU through France rather than the United States. The French radiofrequency spectrum regulatory agency, ANFR, submitted the technical papers filing to the ITU on our behalf in July 2009. As with the first-generation constellation, the ITU requires us to coordinate our spectrum assignments with other administrators and operators that use any portion of our spectrum frequency bands. We are actively engaged in but cannot predict how long the coordination process will take; however, we are able to use the frequencies during the coordination process in accordance with our national licenses.

 

On February 11, 2013, Iridium filed its own petition for rulemaking seeking to have the FCC reallocate 2.725 MHz of Big Leo spectrum from 1616-1618.725 MHz to Iridium’s exclusive use. Iridium also filed a motion to consolidate its petition with our petition for rulemaking. The FCC has not taken any action on Iridium’s petition and motion. We will vigorously oppose Iridium’s petition in order to preserve our existing spectrum allocation.

 

 Spectrum values historically have been volatile, which could cause the value of our business to fluctuate.

 

Our business plan includes forming strategic partnerships to maximize the use and value of our spectrum, network assets and combined service offerings in the United States and internationally. Value that we may be able to realize from such partnerships will depend in part on the value ascribed to our spectrum. Historically, valuations of spectrum in other frequency bands have been volatile, and we cannot predict the future value that we may be able to realize for our spectrum and other assets. In addition, to the extent that the FCC takes action that makes additional spectrum available or promotes the more flexible use or greater availability (e.g., via spectrum leasing or new spectrum sales) of existing satellite or terrestrial spectrum allocations, the availability of such additional spectrum could reduce the value that we may be able to realize for our spectrum.

 

The implementation of our business plan depends on increased demand for wireless communications services via satellite, both for our existing services and products and for new services and products. If this increased demand does not occur, our revenues and profitability may not increase as we expect.

 

Demand for wireless communication services via satellite may not grow, or may even shrink, either generally or in particular geographic markets, for particular types of services or during particular time periods. A lack of demand could impair our ability to sell our services and develop and successfully market new services, or could exert downward pressure on prices, or both. This, in turn, could decrease our revenues and profitability and adversely affect our ability to increase our revenues and profitability over time.

 

The success of our business plan will depend on a number of factors, including:

 

our ability to maintain the health, capacity and control of our satellites;
our ability to maintain or reduce costs until our second-generation constellation is in full service;
the level of market acceptance and demand for all of our services;
our ability to introduce new products and services that meet this market demand;
our ability to retain and obtain new customers;
our ability to obtain additional business using our existing spectrum resources both in the United States and internationally;
our ability to control the costs of developing an integrated network providing related products and services;
our ability to market successfully our SPOT and Simplex products and services;
our ability to develop and deploy innovative network management techniques to permit mobile devices to transition between satellite and terrestrial modes;
our ability to sell the equipment inventory on hand and under commitment to purchase from Qualcomm;
the effectiveness of our competitors in developing and offering similar products and services and in persuading our customers to switch service providers; and
with the addition of our retail product line, general economic conditions that affect consumer discretionary spending and consumer confidence.

 

Our success in generating sufficient cash from operations will depend on our ability to increase prices of services and the market acceptance and success of our current and future products and services, which may not occur.

 

We plan to introduce additional Duplex, SPOT, and Simplex products and services. However, we cannot predict with certainty the potential longer term demand for these products and services or the extent to which we will be able to meet demand. Our business plan assumes growing our Duplex subscriber base beyond levels achieved in the past, rapidly growing our SPOT and Simplex subscriber base and returning the business to profitability. Among other things, end user acceptance of our Duplex, SPOT, and Simplex products and services will depend upon:

 

the actual size of the addressable market;
our ability to provide attractive service offerings at competitive prices to our target markets;
the cost and availability of user equipment that operates on our network;
the effectiveness of our competitors in developing and offering alternate technologies or lower priced services; and
general and local economic conditions, which have been adversely affected by the recent recession.

 

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Our business plan assumes a growing subscriber base for Duplex, SPOT and Simplex products. If we cannot implement this business plan successfully and gain market acceptance for these planned products and services, our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity could be materially and adversely affected.

 

We depend in large part on the efforts of third parties for the retail sale of our services and products. The inability of these third parties to sell our services and products successfully may decrease our future revenue and profitability.

 

We derive a large portion of our revenue from products and services sold through independent agents, dealers and resellers, including, outside the United States, IGOs. If these third parties are unable to market our products and services successfully, our future revenue and profitability may decrease.

  

We depend on IGOs to market our services in important regions around the world. If the IGOs are unable to do this successfully, we will not be able to grow our business in those areas as rapidly as we expect.

 

Although we derive most of our revenue from retail sales to end users in the United States, Canada, a portion of Western Europe, Central America and portions of South America, either directly or through agents, dealers and resellers, we depend on IGOs to purchase, install, operate and maintain gateway equipment, to sell phones and data user terminals, and to market our services in other regions where these IGOs hold exclusive or non-exclusive rights. Not all of the IGOs have been successful and, in some regions, they have not initiated service or sold as much usage as originally anticipated. Some of the IGOs are not earning revenues sufficient to fund their operating costs due to the operational issues we experienced with our first-generation satellites. Although we expect these IGOs to return to profitability with the return of Duplex service, if they are unable to continue in business, we will lose the revenue we receive for selling equipment to them and providing services to their customers. Although we have implemented a strategy for the acquisition of certain IGOs when circumstances permit, we may not be able to continue to implement this strategy on favorable terms and may not be able to realize the additional efficiencies that we anticipate from this strategy. In some regions it is impracticable to acquire the IGOs either because local regulatory requirements or business or cultural norms do not permit an acquisition, because the expected revenue increase from an acquisition would be insufficient to justify the transaction, or because the IGO will not sell at a price acceptable to us. In those regions, our revenue and profits may be adversely affected if those IGOs do not fulfill their own business plans to increase substantially their sales of services and products.

 

Product liability, product replacement, or recall costs could adversely affect our business and financial performance.

 

We are subject to product liability and product recall claims if any of our products and services are alleged to have resulted in injury to persons or damage to property. If any of our products proves to be defective, we may need to recall and/or redesign it. In addition, any claim or product recall that results in significant adverse publicity may negatively affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations. We maintain product liability insurance, but this insurance may not adequately cover losses related to product liability claims brought against us. We may also be a defendant in class action litigation, for which no insurance is available. Product liability insurance could become more expensive and difficult to maintain and may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. In addition, we do not maintain any product recall insurance, so any product recall we are required to initiate could have a significant impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. We regularly investigate potential quality issues as part of our ongoing effort to deliver quality products to our customers.

 

Because consumers use SPOT products and services in isolated and, in some cases, dangerous locations, we cannot predict whether users of the device who suffer injury or death may seek to assert claims against us alleging failure of the device to facilitate timely emergency response. Although we will seek to limit our exposure to any such claims through appropriate disclaimers and liability insurance coverage, we cannot assure investors that the disclaimers will be effective, claims will not arise or insurance coverage will be sufficient.

 

We may be unable to establish a worldwide service network due to the absence of gateways in certain important regions on the world, which may limit our growth and our ability to compete.

 

Our objective is to establish a worldwide service network, either directly or through IGOs, but to date we have been unable to do so in certain areas of the world and we may not succeed in doing so in the future. We have been unable to finance our own gateways or to find capable IGOs for several important regions and countries, including Eastern and Southern Africa, India, China, and certain parts of Southeast Asia. In addition to the lack of global service availability, cost-effective roaming is not yet available in certain countries because the IGOs have been unable to reach business arrangements with one another. This could reduce overall demand for our products and services and undermine our value for potential users who require service in these areas.

 

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Rapid and significant technological changes in the satellite communications industry may impair our competitive position and require us to make significant additional capital expenditures.

 

The hardware and software we currently utilize in operating our gateways were designed and manufactured over 10 years ago and portions have deteriorated. We have contracted to replace the digital hardware and software in the future; however the original equipment may become less reliable as it ages and will be more difficult and expensive to service. Although we maintain inventories of spare parts, it nonetheless may be difficult or impossible to obtain all necessary replacement parts for the hardware before the new equipment and software is fully deployed. We expect to face competition in the future from companies using new technologies and new satellite systems. The space and communications industries are subject to rapid advances and innovations in technology. New technology could render our system obsolete or less competitive by satisfying consumer demand in more attractive ways or through the introduction of incompatible standards. Particular technological developments that could adversely affect us include the deployment by our competitors of new satellites with greater power, greater flexibility, greater efficiency or greater capabilities, as well as continuing improvements in terrestrial wireless technologies. We have had to commit, and must continue to commit, to make significant capital expenditures to keep up with technological changes and remain competitive. Customer acceptance of the services and products that we offer will continually be affected by technology-based differences in our product and service offerings. New technologies may be protected by patents and therefore may not be available to us.

 

A natural disaster could diminish our ability to provide communications service.

 

Natural disasters could damage or destroy our ground stations resulting in a disruption of service to our customers. In addition, the collateral effects of such disasters such as flooding may impair the functioning of our ground equipment. If a natural disaster were to impair or destroy any of our ground facilities, we might be unable to provide service to our customers in the affected area for a period of time. Even if our gateways are not affected by natural disasters, our service could be disrupted if a natural disaster damages the public switch telephone network or terrestrial wireless networks or our ability to connect to the public switch telephone network or terrestrial wireless networks. Such failure or service disruptions could harm our business and results of operations.

 

We face intense competition in all of our markets, which could result in a loss of customers and lower revenues and make it more difficult for us to enter new markets.

 

Satellite-based Competitors

 

There are currently three other MSS operators providing services similar to ours on a global or regional basis: Iridium, Thuraya, and Inmarsat. The provision of satellite-based products and services is subject to downward price pressure when the capacity exceeds demand or as new competitors enter the marketplace with particular competitive pricing strategies.

  

Other providers of satellite-based products could introduce their own products similar to our SPOT, Simplex or Duplex products, which may materially adversely affect our business plan. In addition, we may face competition from new competitors or new technologies. With so many companies targeting many of the same customers, we may not be able to retain successfully our existing customers and attract new customers and as a result may not grow our customer base and revenue.

 

Terrestrial Competitors

 

In addition to our satellite-based competitors, terrestrial wireless voice and data service providers are continuing to expand into rural and remote areas, particularly in less developed countries, and providing the same general types of services and products that we provide through our satellite-based system. Many of these companies have greater resources, greater name recognition and newer technologies than we do. Industry consolidation could adversely affect us by increasing the scale or scope of our competitors and thereby making it more difficult for us to compete. We could lose market share and revenue as a result of increasing competition from the extension of land-based communication services.

 

Although satellite communications services and ground-based communications services are not perfect substitutes, the two compete in certain markets and for certain services. Consumers generally perceive wireless voice communication products and services as cheaper and more convenient than satellite-based products and services.

 

ATC Competitors

 

We also expect to compete with a number of other satellite companies that plan to develop terrestrial networks that utilize their MSS spectrum. DISH Networks recently received FCC approval to offer terrestrial wireless services over the MSS spectrum that previously belonged to TerreStar and ICO Global. Further, LightSquared continues its regulatory initiative to receive final FCC approval to build out a wireless network utilizing its MSS spectrum. Any of these competitors could offer an integrated satellite and terrestrial network before we do, could combine with terrestrial networks that provide them with greater financial or operational flexibility than we have, or could offer wireless services, including mobile broadband services, that customers prefer over ours.

 

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Potential Loss of Customers

 

We may lose customers due to competition, consolidation, regulatory developments, business developments affecting our customers or their customers, the degradation of our constellation or for other reasons. Our top 10 customers for the year ended December 31, 2012 accounted for, in the aggregate, approximately 14% of our total revenues. For the year ended December 31, 2012, revenues from our largest customer was $2.9 million or 4% of our total revenues. If we fail to maintain our relationships with our major customers, if we lose them and fail to replace them with other similar customers, or if we experience reduced demand from our major customers, our revenue could be significantly reduced. In addition, we may incur additional costs to the extent that amounts due from these customers become uncollectible. More generally, our customers may fail to renew or may cancel their service contracts with us, which could negatively affect future revenues and profitability.

   

Our customers include multiple agencies of the U.S. government. Service sales to U.S. government agencies constituted approximately 4% of our total service revenue for 2012 and 2011, respectively. Government sales are made pursuant to individual purchase orders placed from time to time by the governmental agencies and are not related to long-term contracts. U.S. government agencies may terminate their business with us at any time without penalty and are subject to changes in government budgets and appropriations.

 

Our business is subject to extensive government regulation, which mandates how we may operate our business and may increase our cost of providing services, slow our expansion into new markets and subject our services to additional competitive pressures.

  

Our ownership and operation of an MSS system is subject to significant regulation in the United States by the FCC and in foreign jurisdictions by similar authorities. Additionally, our use of our licensed spectrum globally is subject to coordination by the ITU. Our second-generation constellation has been licensed and registered in France. The rules and regulations of the FCC or these foreign authorities may change and may not continue to permit our operations as presently conducted or as we plan to conduct them.

 

Failure to provide services in accordance with the terms of our licenses or failure to operate our satellites, ground stations, or other terrestrial facilities (including those necessary to provide ATC services) as required by our licenses and applicable government regulations could result in the imposition of government sanctions against us, up to and including cancellation of our licenses.

 

Our system requires regulatory authorization in each of the markets in which we or the IGOs provide service. We and the IGOs may not be able to obtain or retain all regulatory approvals needed for operations. For example, the company with which the original owners of our first-generation network contracted to establish an independent gateway operation in South Africa was unable to obtain an operating license from the Republic of South Africa and abandoned the business in 2001. Regulatory changes, such as those resulting from judicial decisions or adoption of treaties, legislation or regulation in countries where we operate or intend to operate, may also significantly affect our business. Because regulations in each country are different, we may not be aware if some of the IGOs and/or persons with which we or they do business do not hold the requisite licenses and approvals.

 

Our current regulatory approvals could now be, or could become, insufficient in the view of foreign regulatory authorities. Furthermore, any additional necessary approvals may not be granted on a timely basis, or at all, in all jurisdictions in which we wish to offer services, and applicable restrictions in those jurisdictions could become unduly burdensome.

 

Our operations are subject to certain regulations of the United States State Department's Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (i.e., the export of satellites and related technical data), United States Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (i.e., financial transactions) and the United States Commerce Department's Bureau of Industry and Security (i.e., our gateways and phones). These regulations may limit or delay our ability to operate in a particular country. As new laws and regulations are issued, we may be required to modify our business plans or operations. If we fail to comply with these regulations in any country, we could be subject to sanctions that could affect, materially and adversely, our ability to operate in that country. Failure to obtain the authorizations necessary to use our assigned radio frequency spectrum and to distribute our products in certain countries could have a material adverse effect on our ability to generate revenue and on our overall competitive position.

  

If we do not develop, acquire and maintain proprietary information and intellectual property rights, it could limit the growth of our business and reduce our market share.

 

Our business depends on technical knowledge, and we believe that our future success is based, in part, on our ability to keep up with new technological developments and incorporate them in our products and services. We own or have the right to use our patents, work products, inventions, designs, software, systems and similar know-how. Although we have taken diligent steps to protect that information, the information may be disclosed to others or others may independently develop similar information, systems and know-how. Protection of our information, systems and know-how may result in litigation, the cost of which could be substantial. Third parties may assert claims that our products or services infringe on their proprietary rights. Any such claims, if made, may prevent or limit our sales of products or services or increase our costs of sales.

 

We license much of the software we require to support critical gateway operations from third parties, including Qualcomm and Space Systems/Loral Inc. This software was developed or customized specifically for our use. We also license software to support customer service functions, such as billing, from third parties which developed or customized it specifically for our use. If the third party licensors were to cease to support and service the software, or the licenses were to no longer be available on commercially reasonable terms, it may be difficult, expensive or impossible to obtain such services from alternative vendors. Replacing such software could be difficult, time consuming and expensive, and might require us to obtain substitute technology with lower quality or performance standards or at a greater cost.

 

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We face special risks by doing business in developing markets, including currency and expropriation risks, which could increase our costs or reduce our revenues in these areas.

 

Although our most economically important geographic markets currently are the United States and Canada, we have substantial markets for our mobile satellite services in, and our business plan includes, developing countries or regions that are underserved by existing telecommunications systems, such as rural Venezuela, Brazil and Central America. Developing countries are more likely than industrialized countries to experience market, currency and interest rate fluctuations and may have higher inflation. In addition, these countries present risks relating to government policy, price, wage and exchange controls, social instability, expropriation and other adverse economic, political and diplomatic conditions.

 

We receive a majority of our revenues in U.S. dollars. Limited availability of U.S. currency in some local markets or governmental controls on the export of currency may prevent an IGO from making payments in U.S. dollars or delay the availability of payment due to foreign bank currency processing and approval. In addition, exchange rate fluctuations may affect our ability to control the prices charged for the independent gateway operators' services.

 

Fluctuations in currency exchange rates may adversely impact our financial results.

 

Our operations involve transactions in a variety of currencies. Sales denominated in foreign currencies primarily involve the Canadian dollar, the euro, and the Brazilian real. Certain of our obligations are denominated in euros. Accordingly, our operating results may be significantly affected by fluctuations in the exchange rates for these currencies. For example, increases in the value of the euro compared to the U.S. dollar can effectively increase the euro-denominated costs of procuring our second-generation satellites. Approximately 29% and 34% of our total sales were to retail customers located primarily in Canada, Europe, Central America, and South America during 2012 and 2011, respectively. Our results of operations for 2012 and 2011 included losses of $2.0 million and $0.5 million, respectively, on foreign currency transactions. We may be unable to offset unfavorable currency movements as they adversely affect our revenue and expenses. Our inability to do so could have a substantial negative impact on our operating results and cash flows.

 

Changes in tax rates or adverse results of tax examinations could materially increase our costs.

 

We operate in various U.S. and foreign tax jurisdictions. The process of determining our anticipated tax liabilities involves many calculations and estimates which are inherently complex. We believe that we have complied in all material respects with our obligations to pay taxes in these jurisdictions. However, our position is subject to review and possible challenge by the taxing authorities of these jurisdictions. If the applicable taxing authorities were to challenge successfully our current tax positions, or if there were changes in the manner in which we conduct our activities, we could become subject to material unanticipated tax liabilities. We may also become subject to additional tax liabilities as a result of changes in tax laws, which could in certain circumstances have a retroactive effect.

 

In January 2012 our Canadian subsidiary was notified that its income tax returns for the years ending October 31, 2008 and 2009 have been selected for audit. Our Canadian subsidiary is in the process of collecting the information requested by the Canadian Revenue Agency.

 

As a result of our acquisition of an independent gateway operator in Brazil during 2008, we are exposed to potential pre-acquisition tax liabilities. During 2012, the seller paid approximately $0.5 million of these liabilities, but the gateway operator remains subject to an additional $2.8 million in liabilities. We may be exposed to potential pre-acquisition liabilities for which we may not be fully indemnified by the seller, or the seller may fail to perform its indemnification obligations.

 

We rely on a limited number of key vendors for timely supply of equipment and services. If our key vendors fail to provide equipment and services to us, we may face difficulties in finding alternative sources and may not be able to operate our business successfully.

 

We have depended on Qualcomm as the exclusive manufacturer of phones using the IS 41 CDMA North American standard, which incorporates Qualcomm proprietary technology. We have issued separate purchase orders for additional phone equipment and accessories under the terms of our executed commercial agreements with Qualcomm. We have been in negotiations with Qualcomm to terminate the current agreement as neither party is performing under the terms of the current agreement. See Note 8 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion. Although we have contracted with Hughes and Ericsson to provide new hardware and software for our ground component, there could be a substantial period of time in which their products or services are not available and Qualcomm no longer supports its products and services.

 

Additionally, we depend on our product manufacturers who provide us with our inventory. If these manufacturers do not take on future orders or fail to perform under our current contracts, we may be unable to continue to produce and sell our inventory to customers at a reasonable cost to us or there may be delays in production and sales.

 

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Pursuing strategic transactions may cause us to incur additional risks.

 

We may pursue acquisitions, joint ventures or other strategic transactions on an opportunistic basis. We may face costs and risks arising from any such transactions, including integrating a new business into our business or managing a joint venture. These may include legal, organizational, financial and other costs and risks.

 

In addition, if we were to choose to engage in any major business combination or similar strategic transaction, we may require significant external financing in connection with the transaction. Depending on market conditions, investor perceptions of us, and other factors, we may not be able to obtain capital on acceptable terms, in acceptable amounts or at appropriate times to implement any such transaction. Our Facility Agreement and other debt obligations contain covenants which limit our ability to engage in specified forms of capital transactions without lender consent, which may be impossible to obtain. Any such financing, if obtained, may further dilute our existing stockholders.

 

Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly.

 

Borrowings under our Facility Agreement are at a variable rate. In order to mitigate our variable rate interest risk, we entered into a ten year interest rate cap agreement. The interest rate cap agreements reflect a variable notional amount ranging from $586.3 million to $14.8 million at interest rates that provide coverage to us for exposure resulting from escalating interest rates over the term of the Facility Agreement. The interest rate cap provides limits on the six-month Libor rate (“Base Rate”) used to calculate the coupon interest on outstanding amounts on the Facility Agreement of 4.00% from the date of issuance through December 2012. Thereafter, the Base Rate is capped at 5.50% should the Base Rate not exceed 6.5%. Should the Base Rate exceed 6.5%, our Base Rate will be 1% less than the then six-month Libor rate. Regardless of our attempts to mitigate our exposure to interest rate fluctuations through the interest rate cap, we still have exposure for the uncapped amounts of the facility, which remain subject to a variable interest rate. As a result, an increase in interest rates could result in a substantial increase in interest expense, especially as the capped amount of the term loan decreases over time.  

 

Recessionary indicators and continued volatility in global economic conditions and the financial markets have adversely affected and may continue to affect adversely sales of our products.

 

Financial markets continue to be uncertain and could significantly adversely impact global economic conditions. These conditions could lead to further reduced consumer spending in the foreseeable future, especially for discretionary travel and related products. A substantial portion of the potential addressable market for our consumer retail products and services relates to recreational users, such as mountain climbers, campers, kayakers, sport fishermen and wilderness hikers. These potential customers may reduce their activities or their spending due to economic conditions, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.

 

The loss of skilled management and personnel could impair our operations.

 

Our performance is substantially dependent on the performance and institutional knowledge of our senior management and key scientific and technical personnel.  The loss of the services of any member of our senior management, scientific or technical staff may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of business objectives by diverting management’s attention to retention matters, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

 

Lack of availability of electronic components from the electronics industry, as needed in our subscriber products, our gateways, and our satellites, could delay or adversely impact our operations.

 

We rely upon the availability of components, materials and component parts from the electronics industry. The electronics industry is subject to occasional shortages in parts availability depending on fluctuations in supply and demand. Industry shortages may result in delayed shipments of materials, or increased prices, or both. As a consequence, elements of our operation which use electronic parts, such as our subscriber products, our gateways and our satellites, could be subject to delays or cost increases, or both.

 

Changes in international trade regulations and other risks associated with foreign trade could adversely affect our sourcing.

 

We source our products primarily from foreign contract manufacturers, with the largest concentration being in China. The adoption of regulations related to the importation of product, including quotas, duties, taxes and other charges or restrictions on imported goods, and changes in U.S. customs procedures could result in an increase in the cost of our products. Delays in customs clearance of goods or the disruption of international transportation lines used by us could result in our inability to deliver goods to customers in a timely manner or the potential loss of sales altogether. Current or future social and environmental regulations or critical issues, such as those relating to the sourcing of conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo or the need to eliminate environmentally sensitive materials from our products, could restrict the supply of components and materials used in production or increase our costs. Any delay or interruption to our manufacturing process or in shipping our products could result in lost revenue, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

 

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Risks Related to Our Common Stock

 

Our common stock has been delisted from the NASDAQ Stock Market, which may impair our ability to raise capital.

 

As of December 31, 2012, our voting common stock was listed on the over the counter stock market (“OTCBB”) under the symbol “GSAT” after we were removed from the NASDAQ Stock Market for not meeting the $1.00 per share minimum bid requirement. Broker-dealers may be less willing or able to sell and/or make a market in our common stock, which may make it more difficult for shareholders to dispose of, or to obtain accurate quotations for the price of, our common stock. Removal of our common stock from listing on the NASDAQ Stock Market may also make it more difficult for us to raise capital through the sale of our securities.

 

If our common stock is not listed on a U.S. national stock exchange or approved for quotation and trading on a national automated dealer quotation system or established automated over-the-counter trading market, holders of our 5.0% Notes, 5.75% Notes and 8.00% Notes will have the option to require us to repurchase the Notes, which we may not have sufficient financial resources to do.

 

As our common stock is no longer listed on the NASDAQ Stock Market, we are no longer subject to any of the NASDAQ governance requirements, and our stockholders will not have the protection of these requirements.

 

Restrictive covenants in our Facility Agreement do not allow us to pay dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future.

 

We do not expect to pay cash dividends on our common stock. Our Facility Agreement currently prohibits the payment of cash dividends. Any future dividend payments are within the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, working capital requirements, capital expenditure requirements, financial condition, contractual restrictions, business opportunities, anticipated cash needs, provisions of applicable law and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. We may not generate sufficient cash from operations in the future to pay dividends on our common stock.

 

The market price of our common stock is volatile and there is a limited market for our shares.

 

The trading price of our common stock is subject to wide fluctuations. Factors affecting the trading price of our common stock may include:

 

actual or anticipated variations in our operating results;
failure in the performance of our current or future satellites;
changes in financial estimates by research analysts, or any failure by us to meet or exceed any such estimates, or changes in the recommendations of any research analysts that elect to follow our common stock or the common stock of our competitors;
actual or anticipated changes in economic, political or market conditions, such as recessions or international currency fluctuations;
actual or anticipated changes in the regulatory environment affecting our industry;
actual or anticipated sales of common stock by our controlling stockholder or others;
changes in the market valuations of our industry peers; and
announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, divestitures, joint ventures or other strategic initiatives.

 

The trading price of our common stock might also decline in reaction to events that affect other companies in our industry even if these events do not directly affect us. Our stockholders may be unable to resell their shares of our common stock at or above the initial purchase price. Additionally, because we are a controlled company there is a limited market for our common stock and we cannot assure our stockholders that a trading market will develop further or be maintained.

 

Trading volume for our common stock historically has been low. Sales of significant amounts of shares of our common stock in the public market could lower the market price of our stock.

 

The future issuance of additional shares of our common stock could cause dilution of ownership interests and adversely affect our stock price.

 

We may issue our previously authorized and unissued securities, resulting in the dilution of the ownership interests of our current stockholders. We are authorized to issue 1.0 billion shares of common stock (135.0 million are designated as nonvoting), of which approximately 354.1 million shares of voting common stock and 135.0 million shares of nonvoting common stock were issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2012 and 510.9 million shares were available for future issuance (of which approximately 471.5 million shares are reserved for issuances of shares upon exercise of warrants or options or conversion of notes). The potential issuance of such additional shares of common stock, whether directly or pursuant to any conversion right of any convertible securities, may create downward pressure on the trading price of our common stock. We may also issue additional shares of our common stock or other securities that are convertible into or exercisable for common stock for capital raising or other business purposes. Future sales of substantial amounts of common stock, or the perception that sales could occur, could have a material adverse effect on the price of our common stock.

 

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We have issued and may issue shares of preferred stock or debt securities with greater rights than our common stock.

 

Our certificate of incorporation authorizes our board of directors to issue one or more series of preferred stock and set the terms of the preferred stock without seeking any further approval from holders of our common stock. Currently, there are 100 million shares of preferred stock authorized; one share of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock was issued and subsequently converted to shares of voting and nonvoting common stock during 2009. Any preferred stock that is issued may rank ahead of our common stock in terms of dividends, priority and liquidation premiums and may have greater voting rights than holders of our common stock.

 

If persons engage in short sales of our common stock, the price of our common stock may decline.

 

Selling short is a technique used by a stockholder to take advantage of an anticipated decline in the price of a security. A significant number of short sales or a large volume of other sales within a relatively short period of time can create downward pressure on the market price of a security. Further sales of common stock could cause even greater declines in the price of our common stock due to the number of additional shares available in the market, which could encourage short sales that could further undermine the value of our common stock. Holders of our securities could, therefore, experience a decline in the value of their investment as a result of short sales of our common stock.

   

Provisions in our charter documents and credit agreement and provisions of Delaware law may discourage takeovers, which could affect the rights of holders of our common stock.

 

Provisions of Delaware law and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and our Facility Agreement and indenture could hamper a third party's acquisition of us or discourage a third party from attempting to acquire control of us. These provisions include:

 

the absence of cumulative voting in the election of our directors, which means that the holders of a majority of our common stock may elect all of the directors standing for election;
the ability of our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting rights or with rights senior to those of the common stock without any further vote or action by the holders of our common stock;
the division of our board of directors into three separate classes serving staggered three-year terms;
the ability of our stockholders, at such time when Thermo does not own a majority of our outstanding capital stock entitled to vote in the election of directors, to remove our directors only for cause and only by the vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote in the election of directors;
prohibitions, at such time when Thermo does not own a majority of our outstanding capital stock entitled to vote in the election of directors, on our stockholders acting by written consent;
prohibitions on our stockholders calling special meetings of stockholders or filling vacancies on our board of directors;
the requirement, at such time when Thermo does not own a majority of our outstanding capital stock entitled to vote in the election of directors, that our stockholders must obtain a super-majority vote to amend or repeal our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or bylaws;
change of control provisions in our Facility Agreement, which provide that a change of control will constitute an event of default and, unless waived by the lenders, will result in the acceleration of the maturity of all indebtedness under the credit agreement;
change of control provisions relating to our 5.0% Notes, 5.75% Notes and 8.00% Notes, which provide that a change of control will permit holders of the Notes to demand immediate repayment; and
change of control provisions in our 2006 Equity Incentive Plan, which provide that a change of control may accelerate the vesting of all outstanding stock options, stock appreciation rights and restricted stock.

 

We also are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which, subject to certain exceptions, prohibits us from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder, as defined in that section, for a period of three years following the date on which that stockholder became an interested stockholder. This provision does not apply to Thermo, which became our principal stockholder prior to our initial public offering.

 

These provisions also could make it more difficult for you and our other stockholders to elect directors and take other corporate actions, and could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock.

 

We are controlled by Thermo, whose interests may conflict with yours.

 

As of December 31, 2012, Thermo owned approximately 66% of our outstanding voting common stock and approximately 75% of all outstanding common stock. Additionally, Thermo owns warrants, 5.0% Notes, and 8.00% Notes that may be converted into or exercised for additional shares of common stock. Thermo is able to control the election of all of the members of our board of directors and the vote on substantially all other matters, including significant corporate transactions such as the approval of a merger or other transaction involving our sale.

 

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We have depended substantially on Thermo to provide capital to finance our business. In 2006 and 2007, Thermo purchased an aggregate of $200 million of common stock at prices substantially above market. On December 17, 2007, Thermo assumed all of the obligations and was assigned all of the rights (other than indemnification rights) of the administrative agent and the lenders under our amended and restated credit agreement. To fulfill the conditions precedent to our Facility Agreement, in 2009, Thermo converted the loans outstanding under the credit agreement into equity and terminated the credit agreement. In addition, Thermo and its affiliates deposited $60.0 million in a contingent equity account to fulfill a condition precedent for borrowing under the Facility Agreement, purchased $20.0 million of our 5.0% Notes, purchased $11.4 million of our 8.00% Notes, and loaned us $37.5 million to fund our debt service reserve account under the Facility Agreement.

 

Thermo is controlled by James Monroe III, our Chairman and CEO. Through Thermo, Mr. Monroe holds equity interests in, and serves as an executive officer or director of, a diverse group of privately-owned businesses not otherwise related to us. We reimburse Thermo and Mr. Monroe for certain third party, documented, out of pocket expenses they incur in connection with our business.

  

The interests of Thermo may conflict with the interests of our other stockholders. Thermo may take actions it believes will benefit its equity investment in us or loans to us even though such actions might not be in your best interests as a holder of our common stock.

  

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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

Not Applicable

  

Item 2. Properties

 

Our principal headquarters are located in Covington, Louisiana, where we currently lease approximately 27,000 square feet of office space. We own or lease the facilities described in the following table (in approximate square feet):

 

 

Location   Country   Square Feet   Facility Use   Owned/Leased
Milpitas, California   USA   55,300   Satellite and Ground Control Center   Leased
Covington, Louisiana   USA   27,000   Corporate Office   Leased
Mississauga, Ontario   Canada   13,600   Canada Office   Leased
El Dorado Hills, California   USA   11,000   Satellite and Ground Control Center   Leased
Managua   Nicaragua   10,900   Gateway   Owned
Clifton, Texas   USA   10,000   Gateway   Owned
Los Velasquez, Edo Miranda   Venezuela   9,700   Gateway   Owned
Sebring, Florida   USA   9,000   Gateway   Leased
Aussaguel   France   7,500   Satellite Control Center and Gateway   Leased
Smith Falls, Ontario   Canada   6,500   Gateway   Owned
High River, Alberta   Canada   6,500   Gateway   Owned
Barrio of Las Palmas, Cabo Rojo   Puerto Rico   6,000   Gateway   Owned
Wasilla, Alaska   USA   5,000   Gateway   Owned
Seletar Satellite Earth Station   Singapore   4,500   Gateway   Leased
Rio de Janeiro   Brazil   3,300   Brazil Office   Leased
Petrolina   Brazil   2,500   Gateway   Owned
Panama City   Panama   2,200   GAT Office   Leased
Manaus   Brazil   1,900   Gateway   Owned
Presidente Prudente   Brazil   1,300   Gateway   Owned
Dublin   Ireland   1,280   Europe Office   Leased

 

Our owned properties in Clifton, Texas and Wasilla, Alaska are encumbered by liens in favor of the administrative agent under our Facility Agreement for the benefit of the lenders thereunder. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis — Contractual Obligations and Commitments."

 

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

 

For a description of our material pending legal and regulatory proceedings and settlements, see Note 9 to our Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

 

Not applicable.

 

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PART II

 

Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity and Related Shareholder Matters

 

Common Stock Information

 

Our common stock trades on the OTCBB under the symbol "GSAT." Until December 21, 2012, our common stock was listed on the NASDAQ Stock Market. The following table sets forth the high and low closing prices for our common stock as reported for each fiscal quarter during the periods indicated.

 

Quarter Ended:  High   Low 
March 31, 2011  $1.49   $1.01 
June 30, 2011  $1.38   $1.04 
September 30, 2011  $1.22   $0.37 
December 31, 2011  $0.73   $0.38 
           
March 31, 2012  $0.85   $0.53 
June 30, 2012  $0.75   $0.25 
September 30, 2012  $0.53   $0.25 
December 31, 2012  $0.48   $0.26 

 

As of March 1, 2013, there were 354,551,816 shares of our voting common stock outstanding, which were held by 141 holders of record.

 

Dividend Information

 

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock. Our Facility Agreement prohibits us from paying dividends. We currently intend to retain any future earnings and do not expect to pay any dividends in the foreseeable future.

 

Item 6. Selected Financial Data

 

The following table presents our selected consolidated financial data for the periods indicated. We derived the historical data from our audited consolidated financial statements.

  

You should read the data set forth below together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The financial data is in thousands.

 

 

   December 31, 
   2012   2011   2010   2009   2008 
Statement of Operations Data (year ended):                         
Revenues  $76,318   $72,827   $67,941   $64,279   $86,055 
Operating loss   (94,993)   (73,235)   (59,769)   (53,791)   (57,710)
Other income (expense)   (16,792)   18,202    (37,302)   (21,148)   32,635 
Loss before income taxes   (111,785)   (55,033)   (97,071)   (74,939)   (25,075)
Net loss   (112,198)   (54,924)   (97,467)   (74,923)   (22,792)
                          
Balance Sheet Data (end of period):                         
Cash and cash equivalents   11,792    9,951    33,017    67,881    12,357 
Property and equipment, net   1,215,156    1,217,718    1,150,470    964,921    645,321 
Total assets   1,403,775    1,420,405    1,386,808    1,266,640    816,878 
Current maturities of long-term debt   655,874            2,259    33,575 
Long-term debt, less current maturities   95,155    723,888    664,543    463,551    238,345 
Stockholders’ Equity   494,544    533,795    535,418    595,792    445,397 

 

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and applicable notes to our consolidated financial statements and other information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including risk factors disclosed in Part I, Item IA. The following information contains forward-looking statements, which are subject to risks and uncertainties. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, our actual results may differ from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. See “Forward-Looking Statements” at the beginning of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements contains a description of the accounting policies used in the preparation of our financial statements. We evaluate our estimates on an ongoing basis, including those related to revenue recognition; property and equipment; income taxes; derivative instruments; inventory; allowance for doubtful accounts; pension plan; stock-based compensation; long-lived assets; and litigation, commitments and contingencies. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. Actual amounts could differ significantly from these estimates under different assumptions and conditions.

 

We define a critical accounting policy or estimate as one that is both important to our financial condition and results of operations and requires us to make difficult, subjective or complex judgments or estimates about matters that are uncertain. We believe that the following are the critical accounting policies and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. In addition, there are other items within our consolidated financial statements that require estimates but are not deemed critical as defined in this paragraph.

  

Revenue Recognition

 

Our primary types of revenue include (i) service revenue from two-way voice communication and data transmissions and one-way data transmissions between a mobile or fixed device and (ii) subscriber equipment revenue from the sale of Duplex two-way transmission products, SPOT consumer retail products, and Simplex one-way transmission products. Additionally, we generate revenue by providing engineering and support services to certain customers. We provide Duplex, SPOT and Simplex services directly to customers and through resellers and IGOs.

 

Duplex

 

For our Duplex customers and resellers, we recognize revenue for monthly access fees in the period services are rendered.  Access fees represent the minimum monthly charge for each line of service based on its associated rate plan. We also recognize revenue for airtime minutes in excess of the monthly access fees in the period such minutes are used. Under certain annual plans where customers prepay for a predetermined amount of minutes, we defer revenue until the minutes are used or the prepaid time period expires. Unused minutes accumulate until they expire, at which point revenue is recognized for any remaining unused minutes. For annual access fees charged for certain annual plans, revenue is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the plan.

  

We expense or charge credits granted to customers against revenue or deferred revenue upon issuance.

 

We expense certain subscriber acquisition costs, including such items as dealer commissions, internal sales commissions and equipment subsidies at the time of the related sale.

 

SPOT and Simplex

 

We sell SPOT and Simplex services as annual or multi-year plans and recognize revenue ratably over the service term or as service is used, beginning when the service is activated by the customer. We record amounts received in advance as deferred revenue.

 

IGO

 

We earn a portion of our revenues through the sale of airtime minutes or data packages on a wholesale basis to IGOs. We recognize revenue from services provided to IGOs based upon airtime minutes or data packages used by their customers and in accordance with contractual fee arrangements. If collection is uncertain, we recognize revenue when cash payment is received.

 

Equipment

 

Subscriber equipment revenue represents the sale of fixed and mobile user terminals, accessories and our SPOT and Simplex products. We recognize revenue upon shipment provided title and risk of loss have passed to the customer, persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, the fee is fixed and determinable, and collection is probable.

 

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Other

 

We also provide certain engineering services to assist customers in developing new technologies related to our system. We recognize the revenues associated with these services when the services are rendered, and we recognize the expenses when incurred. We recognize revenues and costs associated with long-term engineering contracts on the percentage-of-completion basis of accounting.

 

Property and Equipment

 

We capitalize costs associated with the design, manufacture, test and launch of our low earth orbit satellites. We track capitalized costs associated with our satellites by fixed asset category and allocate them to each asset as it comes into service. For assets that are sold or retired, including satellites that are de-orbited and no longer providing services, we remove the estimated cost and accumulated depreciation. We recognize a loss from an in-orbit failure of a satellite as an expense in the period it is determined that the satellite is not recoverable.

 

We depreciate satellites over their estimated useful lives, beginning on the date each satellite is placed into service. We evaluate the appropriateness of estimated useful lives assigned to our property and equipment and revise such lives to the extent warranted by changing facts and circumstances.

 

We review the carrying value of our assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the recorded value may not be recoverable. We look to current and future undiscounted cash flows, excluding financing costs, as primary indicators of recoverability. If we determine that impairment exists, we calculate any related impairment loss based on fair value.

 

Income Taxes

 

 We use the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. This method takes into account the differences between financial statement treatment and tax treatment of certain transactions. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Our deferred tax calculation requires us to make certain estimates about our future operations. Changes in state, federal and foreign tax laws, as well as changes in our financial condition or the carrying value of existing assets and liabilities, could affect these estimates. We recognize the effect of a change in tax rates as income or expense in the period that the rate is enacted.

 

We are required to assess whether it is more likely than not that we will be able to realize some or all of our deferred tax assets. If we cannot determine that deferred tax assets are more likely than not recoverable, we are required to provide a valuation allowance against those assets. This assessment takes into account factors including: (a) the nature, frequency, and severity of current and cumulative financial reporting losses; (b) sources of estimated future taxable income; and (c) tax planning strategies. 

 

Derivative Instruments

 

We recognize all derivative instruments as either assets or liabilities on the balance sheet at their respective fair values. We record recognized gains or losses on derivative instruments in the consolidated statements of operations. 

 

We estimate the fair values of our derivative financial instruments using various techniques that are considered to be consistent with the objective of measuring fair values. In selecting the appropriate technique, we consider, among other factors, the nature of the instrument, the market risks that embody it and the expected means of settlement. We determine the fair value of our interest rate cap using pricing models developed based on the LIBOR rate and other observable market data. That value is adjusted to reflect nonperformance risk of both the counterparty and us. For the conversion rights and features embedded within the 8.00% Notes and the warrants issued with the 8.00% Notes, we use the Monte Carlo valuation technique to determine fair value. For the contingent put feature embedded in the 5.0% Notes, we use the Monte Carlo valuation technique to determine fair value. Valuations derived from these models are subject to ongoing internal and external verification and review. Estimating fair values of derivative financial instruments requires the development of significant and subjective estimates that may, and are likely to, change over the duration of the instrument with related changes in internal and external market factors. Our financial position and results of operations may vary materially from quarter-to-quarter based on conditions other than our operating revenues and expenses.

 

Inventory

 

Inventory consists of purchased products, including fixed and mobile user terminals and accessories. We compute cost using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method and state inventory transactions at the lower of cost or market. Inventory write-downs are measured as the difference between the cost of inventory and market, and are recorded as a cost of subscriber equipment sales - reduction in the value of inventory. At the point of any inventory write-downs to market, a new, lower cost basis for that inventory is established, and any subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration of the former cost basis or increase in that newly established cost basis.

 

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We review product sales and returns from the previous 12 months and future demand forecasts and write off any excess or obsolete inventory. We also assess inventory for obsolescence by testing finished goods to ensure they have been properly stored and maintained so that they will perform according to specifications. In addition, we assess the market for competing products to determine that the existing inventory will be competitive in the marketplace. We also record a liability for firm, noncancelable, and unconditional purchase commitments with contact manufacturers and suppliers for quantities in excess of our future demand forecasts consistent with the valuation of our excess and obsolete inventory.

 

If there were to be a sudden and significant decrease in future demand for our products, or if there were a higher incidence of inventory obsolescence because of rapidly changing technology and customer requirements, we could be required to write down our inventory, and our liability for purchase commitments with contract manufacturers and suppliers, and accordingly gross margin could be adversely affected.

 

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

 

We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of some of our customers to make required payments. We review these estimated allowances on a case by case basis, analyzing the customer's payment history and information regarding the customer's creditworthiness known to us. In addition, we record a reserve based on the size and age of all receivable balances against those balances that do not have specific reserves. If the financial condition of our customers deteriorates, resulting in their inability to make payments, we would record additional allowances.

 

Pension Plan

 

We calculate our pension benefit obligation and expense using actuarial models. Critical assumptions and estimates we use in the actuarial calculations include discount rate, expected rate of return on plan assets and other participant data, such as demographic factors, mortality, and termination.

 

We determine discount rates annually based on our calculated average of rates of return of long-term corporate bonds. We based discount rates on Moody’s and Citigroup’s annualized yield curve index as of December 31, 2012 and 2011. The discount rate used at the measurement date decreased to 3.75% from 4.00% in 2011. A 100 basis point increase in our discount rate would reduce our benefit obligation by $2.2 million.

 

We determine expected long-term rates of return on plan assets based on an evaluation of our plan assets, historical trends and experience, taking into account current and expected market conditions. Plan assets are comprised primarily of equity and debt securities. The rate of return on plan assets decreased to 7.12% from 7.50% in 2011. To determine the rates of return, we consider historical experience and expected future performance of plan assets.

 

Stock-Based Compensation

 

To measure compensation expense, we use valuation models which require estimates such as, forfeitures, vesting terms (calculated based on market conditions associated with a certain award), volatility, and risk free interest rates. Additionally we recognize stock-based compensation expense over the requisite service periods of the awards on a straight-line basis, which is generally commensurate with the vesting term.

 

Long-Lived Assets

 

We review long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of any asset may not be recoverable. In the event of impairment, we write the asset down to its fair market value.

   

Litigation, Commitments and Contingencies

 

We are subject to various claims and lawsuits that arise in the ordinary course of business. Estimating liabilities and costs associated with these matters requires judgment and assessment based on professional knowledge and experience of our management and legal counsel. The ultimate resolution of any such exposure may vary from earlier estimates as further facts and circumstances become known.

  

Performance Indicators

 

Our management reviews and analyzes several key performance indicators in order to manage our business and assess the quality of and potential variability of our earnings and cash flows. These key performance indicators include:

 

total revenue, which is an indicator of our overall business growth;
subscriber growth and churn rate, which are both indicators of the satisfaction of our customers;
average monthly revenue per user, or ARPU, which is an indicator of our pricing and ability to obtain effectively long-term, high-value customers. We calculate ARPU separately for each type of our Duplex, Simplex, SPOT, and IGO revenue;

 

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operating income and adjusted EBITDA, which are both indicators of our financial performance; and
capital expenditures, which are an indicator of future revenue growth potential and cash requirements.

 

Comparison of the Results of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011

 

Revenue:

 

Total revenue increased by $3.5 million, or approximately 5%, to $76.3 million for 2012 from $72.8 million in 2011. During the first quarter of 2011, we recognized $2.0 million in nonrecurring revenue as a result of the termination of our Open Range partnership. Excluding this revenue recognized, total revenue increased $5.5 million, or approximately 8%. We attribute this increase to higher sales of Simplex equipment and increased service revenue as a result of growth in our SPOT and Simplex subscriber base. These increases were offset primarily by decreases in sales of SPOT equipment due to the introduction of new product offerings in early 2011. The majority of the subscribers we gained as a result of higher SPOT equipment sales in 2011 is in our current subscriber base and continues to generate service revenue.

 

The following table sets forth amounts and percentages of our revenue by type of service for 2012 and 2011 (in thousands):

 

   Year Ended 
December 31, 2012
   Year Ended 
December 31, 2011
 
   Revenue   % of Total
 Revenue
   Revenue   % of Total 
Revenue
 
Service Revenues:                    
Duplex  $18,438    24%  $19,778    27%
SPOT   25,227    33    19,753    27 
Simplex   6,146    8    5,495    8 
IGO   804    1    1,533    2 
Other   6,853    9    8,838    12 
Total Service Revenues  $57,468    75%  $55,397    76%

 

The following table sets forth amounts and percentages of our revenue for equipment sales for 2012 and 2011 (in thousands).

 

   Year Ended 
December 31, 2012
   Year Ended 
December 31, 2011
 
   Revenue   % of Total 
Revenue
   Revenue   % of Total 
Revenue
 
Equipment Revenues:                    
Duplex  $2,652    4%  $1,826    3%
SPOT   4,997    7    7,932    11 
Simplex   9,081    12    6,431    9 
IGO   990    1    1,128    1 
Other   1,130    1    113     
Total Equipment Revenues  $18,850    25%  $17,430    24%

 

Other equipment revenue includes sales of accessories to support our current lineup of Duplex, SPOT and Simplex products.

 

The following table sets forth our average number of subscribers, ARPU, and ending number of subscribers by type of revenue for 2012 and 2011. The following numbers are subject to immaterial rounding inherent in calculating averages.   

 

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   December 31, 
   2012   2011 
         
Average number of subscribers for the period (year ended):          
Duplex   88,189    93,963 
SPOT   221,911    177,247 
Simplex   164,459    136,037 
IGO   42,252    47,920 
           
ARPU (monthly):          
Duplex  $17.42   $17.54 
SPOT   9.47    9.29 
Simplex   3.11    3.37 
IGO   1.59    2.67 
           
Number of subscribers (end of period):          
Duplex   84,330    92,047 
SPOT   241,081    202,741 
Simplex   188,158    140,760 
IGO   41,146    43,357 
Other   7,239    7,548 
Total   561,954    486,453 

  

 Other service revenue includes primarily revenue generated from engineering services and our former Open Range partnership, which is not subscriber driven. Accordingly, we do not present average subscribers or ARPU for other revenue in the above charts.

 

Service Revenue

 

Duplex revenue decreased approximately 7% in 2012 from 2011. Our two-way communication issues continue to affect our Duplex revenue. Despite our efforts to maintain our Duplex subscriber base by lowering prices for our Duplex equipment, our subscriber base decreased by approximately 8% during 2012. During 2012, we began a process to convert certain Duplex customers to higher rate plans commensurate with our improved service levels. As a result, we have experienced some additional churn in our subscriber base. As a result of launching and placing into service our second-generation satellites, we are experiencing increases in demand for our Duplex two-way voice and data products. As these units are activated, we expect to see increases in the related Duplex service in the future.

 

SPOT revenue increased approximately 28% in 2012. We generated increased service revenue from SPOT and added additional service revenue from the release of other SPOT consumer retail products sold during 2011, which are reflected in our 2012 subscriber base. Our SPOT subscriber base increased by approximately 19% during 2012. Our subscriber count includes suspended subscribers, who are subscribers who have activated their devices, have access, but no service revenue is being recognized for their fees while we are in the process of collecting payment. These suspended accounts represented 19% and 20% of our total SPOT subscribers as of December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. Beginning in 2013, we initiated a process to deactivate these suspended accounts.

 

Simplex revenue increased approximately 12% in 2012 from 2011. We generated increased service revenue due to a 34% increase in our Simplex subscribers during 2012. Revenue growth for our Simplex customers is not necessarily commensurate with subscriber growth due to the various competitive pricing plans we offer and product mix.

 

Other revenue decreased approximately 22% in 2012. This decrease related to the nonrecurrence in 2012 of revenue recognized as a result of the termination of our Open Range contract in the first quarter of 2011. Excluding the recognition of Open Range revenue of approximately $2.0 million, other revenue remained consistent, which was due primarily to higher engineering services revenue and higher activation fees recognized during 2012 compared to 2011. These increases were offset by decreases in service revenue recognized from third party sources.

 

Equipment Revenue

 

Duplex equipment sales increased by approximately 45% in 2012. As a result of launching and placing into service our second-generation satellites, we are experiencing increased demand for our Duplex two-way voice and data products. As these units are activated, we expect to see increases in the related Duplex service in the future. As we place into service the remaining second-generation satellites that we launched in February 2013, our two-way communication reliability will continue to improve, and we expect Duplex equipment revenue to increase. 

 

 Our inventory and advances for inventory balances were $42.2 million and $9.2 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2012, compared with subscriber equipment sales of $18.9 million for 2012. A significant portion of our inventory consists of Duplex products which are designed to operate with both our first-generation and our second-generation satellites. Our advances for inventory relate to our commitment with Qualcomm to purchase additional Duplex products. In May 2008, we entered into an agreement with Hughes under which Hughes will design, supply and implement (a) RAN ground network equipment and software upgrades for installation at a number of our satellite gateway ground stations and (b) satellite interface chips to be a part of the UTS in various next-generation Globalstar devices.

 

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We sold a limited number of Duplex products in 2012 and 2011, compared to the high level of inventory on hand. However, we have several initiatives underway intended to increase future sales of Duplex products, which depend upon successfully completing the deployment of our second-generation constellation. With the improvement of both coverage and quality for our Duplex services resulting from the deployment of our second-generation constellation, we expect an increase in the sale of Duplex products which would result in a reduction in the inventory currently on hand.

 

SPOT equipment sales decreased approximately 37% in 2012. The decrease relates primarily to higher sales of certain new SPOT consumer retail products which were released in early 2011 which did not recur in 2012. We anticipate introducing additional SPOT products during 2013 that we expect will further drive sales, subscriber and revenue growth.

 

Simplex equipment sales increased approximately 41% in 2012. The increase is due primarily to continued success of our commercial applications for M2M asset monitoring and tracking.

  

Operating Expenses:

 

Total operating expenses increased $25.2 million, or approximately 17%, to $171.3 million from $146.1 million in 2011. This increase is primarily due to the $22.0 million agreed termination charge related to the settlement with Thales regarding the construction of Phase 3 satellites, as well as the recognition of a loss of approximately $7.1 million related to an adjustment made to the carrying value of our first-generation constellation. Excluding these one-time items, total operating expenses decreased $3.9 million, or 3%, during 2012 due to decreases in various components of operating expenses, partially offset by higher depreciation expense of $19.8 million as a result of additional second-generation satellites coming into service throughout 2011 and 2012.

 

Cost of Services

 

Cost of services decreased $6.0 million, or approximately 21%, to $23.2 million from $29.2 million in 2011. Cost of services is comprised primarily of network operating costs, which are generally fixed in nature. The decrease during the year was due primarily to implementation of our plans to lower costs by monitoring operating expenses and streamlining operations.

 

Cost of Subscriber Equipment Sales

 

Cost of subscriber equipment sales increased $1.4 million, or approximately 11%, to $13.3 million from $11.9 million in 2011. These increases were due primarily to increases in equipment revenue of 8% for 2012 from 2011. These increases were offset slightly by lower manufacturing costs for our SPOT and Simplex products.

 

Marketing, general and administrative

 

Marketing, general and administrative expenses decreased $8.1 million, or approximately 19%, to $34.3 million from $42.4 million in 2011. This decrease was due primarily to higher legal fees incurred during 2011 related to the arbitration with Thales, and our recording a provision for contingent payroll reimbursements as a result of our relocation agreement with the State of Louisiana during 2011. We also experienced decreases across all expense categories due to improvements in our cost structure from monitoring operating costs and streamlining operations.

 

Contract Termination Charge

 

During the second quarter of 2012, we recorded a contract termination charge of €17.5 million. This charge related to the agreement between us and Thales regarding construction of additional second-generation satellites. See Note 9 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion.

 

Reduction in the Value of Inventory

 

Cost of subscriber equipment sales - reduction in the value of inventory was $1.4 million compared to $8.8 million in 2011. During 2012, we recorded an inventory reserve of $1.0 million related to component parts that will not be utilized in the manufacturing or production of current or future products. In 2011, we recorded impairment charges on our phones and related inventory that use our two-way communication services. These charges were recognized after assessment of our inventory quantities and our forecasted equipment sales and prices given the current and expected market conditions for this type of equipment. During 2011, we also recorded impairment charges of $1.0 million as a result of discontinuing the sale of certain products resulting from our strategic decision to focus on our core products and curtail substantially all on-going product development activities.

 

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Reduction in the Value of Long-Lived Assets

  

Reduction in the value of long-lived assets was $7.2 million during 2012 and $3.6 million during 2011. During the second quarter of 2012, we recorded a loss of $7.1 million related to an adjustment made to the carrying value of our first-generation constellation. See Note 8 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion. During 2011, we recorded an impairment charge of $3.0 million related to intangible assets, equipment, and capitalized software costs as a result of discontinuing the sale of certain products resulting from our strategic decision to focus on our core products and curtail substantially all on-going product development activities.  

 

Depreciation, Amortization and Accretion

 

Depreciation, amortization, and accretion expense increased $19.8 million, or approximately 39%, to $69.8 million from $50.0 million in 2011. The increase relates primarily to additional depreciation expense for our second-generation satellites placed into service throughout 2011 and 2012. 

 

Other Income (Expense):

 

Interest Income and Expense

 

 Interest income and expense, net, increased by $16.7 million to a net expense of $21.5 million for 2012 from $4.8 million in 2011. This increase was due primarily to a reduction in our capitalized interest due to the status of our construction in progress. As we place satellites into service, our construction in progress balance related to our second-generation satellites decreases, which reduces the amount of interest we can capitalize under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”). As a result of this decrease in our construction in progress balance, we recorded approximately $17.1 million of interest expense during 2012 and $0 in 2011.

 

Derivative Gain (Loss)

 

Derivative gain (loss) decreased by $16.9 million to a gain of $6.9 million for 2012 from a gain of $23.8 million in 2011, due primarily to changes in our stock price. 

  

Other

 

Other income (expense) increased by $1.5 million to expense of $2.3 million for 2012 from expense of $0.8 million in 2011. Changes in other income (expense) are due primarily to foreign currency gains and losses recognized during the respective periods.

 

Comparison of the Results of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010

 

Revenue:

 

Total revenue increased by $4.9 million, or approximately 7%, to $72.8 million for 2011 from $67.9 million in 2010. We attribute this increase to higher service and equipment revenues as a result of increases in our SPOT and Simplex subscriber base. The increase in our SPOT and Simplex sales was partially offset by decreases in service revenue and equipment sales in our Duplex business, which continues to be affected by our two-way communication issues.

 

The following table sets forth amounts and percentages of our revenue by type of service for 2011 and 2010 (in thousands).

 

 

   Year Ended 
December 31, 2011
   Year Ended 
December 31, 2010
 
   Revenue   % of Total 
Revenue
   Revenue   % of Total
 Revenue
 
Service Revenues:                    
Duplex  $19,778    27%  $23,294    34%
SPOT   19,753    27    14,756    22 
Simplex   5,495    8    4,583    7 
IGO   1,533    2    1,140    2 
Other   8,838    12    7,164    10 
Total Service Revenues  $55,397    76%  $50,937    75%

 

The following table sets forth amounts and percentages of our revenue for equipment sales for 2011 and 2010 (in thousands).

 

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   Year Ended 
December 31, 2011
   Year Ended 
December 31, 2010
 
   Revenue   % of Total 
Revenue
   Revenue   % of Total
Revenue
 
Equipment Revenues:                    
Duplex  $1,826    3%  $2,148    3%
SPOT   7,932    11    8,548    13 
Simplex   6,431    9    5,337    8 
IGO   1,128    1    659    1 
Other   113        312     
Total Equipment Revenues  $17,430    24%  $17,004    25%

 

The following table sets forth our average number of subscribers, ARPU, and ending number of subscribers by type of revenue for 2011 and 2010. The following numbers are subject to immaterial rounding inherent in calculating averages.   

  

   December 31, 
   2011   2010 
         
Average number of subscribers for the period (year ended):          
Duplex   93,963    97,453 
SPOT   177,247    127,633 
Simplex   136,037    123,348 
IGO   47,920    58,603 
           
ARPU (monthly):          
Duplex  $17.54   $19.92 
SPOT   9.29    9.64 
Simplex   3.37    3.10 
IGO   2.67    1.62 
Number of subscribers (end of period):          
Duplex   92,047    95,879 
SPOT   202,741    151,752 
Simplex   140,760    131,313 
IGO   43,357    52,483 
Other   7,548    7,826 
Total   486,453    439,253 

 

 Other service revenue includes revenue generated from engineering services and our former Open Range partnership, which is not subscriber driven. Accordingly, we do not present average subscribers or ARPU for other revenue in the above charts.

 

Service Revenue

 

Duplex revenue decreased approximately 15% in 2011 from 2010. Our two-way communication issues continue to adversely affect our Duplex revenue. Despite our efforts to maintain our Duplex subscriber base by lowering prices for our Duplex products, our subscriber base decreased by approximately 4% during 2011. As we launch and place into service our remaining second-generation satellites during 2012, our two-way communication reliability will improve, and we expect Duplex service revenue to increase in 2012.

 

SPOT revenue increased approximately 34% in 2011. We generated increased revenue from our SPOT Satellite GPS Messenger and added additional service revenue from the release of other SPOT consumer retail products during the second half of 2010 and the first quarter of 2011. Our SPOT subscriber base increased by approximately 34% during 2011. Our subscriber count includes suspended subscribers, which are subscribers who have activated their devices, have access, but no service revenue is being recognized for their fees while we are in the process of collecting payments. These suspended accounts represented 25% and 15% of our total SPOT subscribers as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively. In January 2013, we implemented a plan to no longer provide service to suspended subscribers as their contracts reach the end of their activation period. This plan will result in these subscribers no longer being included in our subscriber count.

 

Simplex revenue increased approximately 20% in 2011 from 2010. We generated increased service revenue due to an increase in our Simplex subscribers of 7% during 2011.

 

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Subscriber Equipment Sales

 

Duplex equipment sales decreased by approximately 15% in 2011 from 2010. Our two-way communication issues continue to affect adversely our Duplex equipment sales. Despite our efforts to maintain our Duplex equipment sales by lowering prices for our Duplex products, we continue to be affected by our two-way communication issues.

 

 Our inventory and advances for inventory balances were $41.8 million and $9.2 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2011, compared with subscriber equipment sales of $17.4 million for the year then ended. A significant portion of our inventory consists of Duplex products which are designed to operate with both our initial constellation and our second-generation constellation. Our advances for inventory relate to our commitment with Qualcomm to purchase additional Duplex products. As discussed in Note 8 to the consolidated financial statements, we are currently seeking to negotiate termination of this commitment. We have not entered into any other purchase commitments to produce or purchase the next generation of Duplex products.

 

The deterioration of our initial constellation has resulted in substantially reduced ability to provide reliable two-way communications, which has resulted in a decrease in demand for our Duplex products. As such, we sold a limited number of Duplex products in 2011 and 2010, compared to the high level of inventory on hand. However, we have several initiatives underway to increase our subscriber equipment sales for Duplex products in the future, which depend upon successfully completing the deployment of our second-generation constellation. With the improvement of both coverage and quality for our Duplex services resulting from the deployment of our second-generation constellation, we expect an increase in the sale of Duplex products which would result in a reduction in the inventory currently on hand.

 

SPOT equipment sales decreased approximately 7% in 2011. The decrease relates primarily to higher sales in 2010 related to the release of our SPOT 2 Satellite GPS Messenger during that period, which was offset partially by the release of other SPOT consumer retail products during the second half of 2010 and the first quarter of 2011.

 

Simplex equipment sales increased approximately 21% in 2011. The increase is due primarily to increased demand for our machine-to-machine (“M2M”) products.

  

Operating Expenses:

 

Total operating expenses increased $18.4 million, or approximately 14%, to $146.1 million for 2011 from $127.7 million in 2010. We attribute this increase to higher depreciation expense as a result of our second-generation satellites coming into service during the fourth quarter 2010 and throughout 2011, offset by decreases in other components of operating expenses.

  

Cost of Services

 

Cost of services decreased $1.9 million, or approximately 6%, to $29.3 million for 2011 from $31.2 million in 2010. Cost of services is comprised primarily of network operating costs, which are generally fixed in nature. The decrease during the year was due primarily to a recently implemented plan to improve cost structure by reducing headcount and monitoring operating costs.

 

Cost of Subscriber Equipment Sales

 

Cost of subscriber equipment sales decreased $1.3 million, or approximately 10%, to $11.9 million for 2011 from $13.2 million in 2010. We experienced a decrease in costs during the second half of 2010 and throughout 2011 due to lower manufacturing costs for our SPOT products as a result of our acquisition of Axonn at the end of 2009, as well as increased warranty expense recognized due to the release of other SPOT consumer retail products during 2010 and the first quarter of 2011. Additionally, we incurred higher costs in 2010 due to increased expediting fees paid to suppliers that did not recur in 2011. This decrease was offset by an increase (3%) in equipment revenue during 2011.

 

Cost of Subscriber Equipment Sales - Reduction in the Value of Inventory

 

Cost of subscriber equipment sales - reduction in the value of inventory decreased $2.1 million to $8.8 million for 2011 from $10.9 million in 2010.  During 2010, we recorded impairment charges to adjust the cost of certain products that require the use of our two-way communication services. In 2011, we recoded additional charges on products that use our two-way communication services. Impairment charges on inventory represent write-downs of our second-generation phones and related accessory inventory. These charges were recognized after assessment of our inventory quantities and our forecasted equipment sales and prices given the current and expected market conditions for this type of equipment. During 2011, we recorded additional impairment charges as a result of discontinuing of the sale of certain products resulting from our strategic decision to focus on our core products and curtail substantially all on-going product development activities.

  

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Reduction in the Value of Long-Lived Assets

 

Reduction in the value of long-lived assets increased $0.3 million, or 10%, during 2011. During 2011, we recorded an impairment charge related to intangible assets, equipment, and capitalized software costs as a result of discontinuing the sale of certain products resulting from our strategic decision to focus on our core products and curtail substantially all on-going product development activities. During 2010, we recognized an impairment charge to goodwill of $2.7 million based on our annual impairment analysis. Additional reductions in the value of assets were related to gateway spare parts of $0.5 million and other spare parts of $0.1 million during 2010.

 

Marketing, general and administrative

 

Marketing, general and administrative expenses increased $0.6 million, or approximately 1%, to $42.4 million for 2011 from $41.8 million in 2010. This increase related primarily to higher legal fees incurred during the year, primarily related to the arbitration with Thales, and our recording a provision for contingent payroll reimbursements as a result of our relocation agreement with the State of Louisiana. These increases were offset partially by our recently implemented plan to improve cost structure by reducing headcount and monitoring operating costs.

 

Depreciation, Amortization and Accretion

 

Depreciation, amortization, and accretion expense increased $22.6 million, or approximately 83%, to $50.0 million for 2011 from $27.4 million in 2010. The increase relates primarily to additional depreciation expense for the second-generation satellites placed into service during the fourth quarter 2010 and throughout 2011. 

 

Other Income (Expense):

 

Interest Expense

 

 Interest expense decreased by $0.2 million to $4.8 million for 2011 from $5.0 million in 2010. This decrease is due to conversion of notes to common stock in 2010, which resulted in a write-off of a portion of the deferred financing costs at the time of conversion.  This resulted in less amortization in 2011.

 

Derivative Gain (Loss)

 

Derivative gain (loss) improved by $53.8 million to a gain of $23.8 million for 2011 from a loss of $30.0 million in 2010, reflecting the fair value adjustment to our derivative assets and liabilities. The derivative gain was due primarily to decreases in our stock price over the year. 

  

Other

 

Other expense decreased by $1.9 million to $0.8 million for 2011 from $2.7 million in 2010. This decrease relates primarily to losses we recognized on equity method investments in 2010 that did not recur in 2011.

 

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Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Our principal liquidity requirements are to meet capital expenditure needs, including deploying our second-generation constellation, next-generation ground upgrades, repayment of our current and long-term debt, operating costs, and working capital. Our principal sources of liquidity include cash on hand ($11.8 million at December 31, 2012), cash flows from operations ($6.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2012), the remaining funds available under our Facility Agreement ($0.7 million at December 31, 2012, subject to certain restrictions, see below for further discussion), interest earned from funds previously held in our contingent equity account ($1.1 million at December 31, 2012), amounts held in our debt service reserve account ($8.9 million at December 31, 2012). We are seeking additional funds from financing not yet arranged. On December 28, 2012, we entered into an equity line agreement with Terrapin under which we may require Terrapin to purchase up to $30.0 million of our common stock. See below for further discussion.

 

Cash Flows for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011, and 2010

 

The following table shows our cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities for 2012, 2011 and 2010 (in thousands):

  

   Year Ended December 31, 
Statements of Cash Flows  2012   2011   2010 
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities  $6,874   $(5,503)  $(23,338)
Net cash used in investing activities   (58,010)   (99,419)   (205,391)
Net cash provided by financing activities   52,386    82,638    194,670 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash   591    (782)   (805)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents  $1,841   $(23,066)  $(34,864)

 

Cash Flows Used by Operating Activities

 

Net cash provided by operating activities during 2012 was $6.9 million compared to net cash used of $5.5 million in 2011. During the third quarter of 2012, we received a $6.0 million refund related to the termination of an agreement with a vendor for services related to our second-generation constellation. We also experienced favorable changes in operating assets and liabilities during 2012, which resulted in positive cash flows from operations for 2012.

 

Net cash used by operating activities during 2011 was $5.5 million compared to $23.3 million in 2010. This decrease in cash used resulted primarily from favorable changes in operating assets and liabilities during 2011. We continued to use cash to fund operating losses (after adjustments for non-cash expenses including depreciation, amortization, accretion, stock based compensation, impairment of assets, and changes in the fair values of derivative assets and liabilities).

 

Cash Flows Used in Investing Activities

 

Cash used in investing activities was $58.0 million during 2012 compared to $99.4 million during 2011. The decrease in cash used during 2012 when compared to 2011 resulted primarily from decreased payments related to the construction of our second-generation constellation as the second-generation satellites neared completion and the deferral of payments to contactors working on the construction of our next-generation ground upgrades.

 

We will continue to incur capital expenditures in the first quarter of 2013 relating to the construction and deployment of our second-generation satellites (our remaining satellites were launched in February 2013) and throughout 2013 relating to additional capital expenditures to upgrade our gateways and other ground facilities. These capital expenditures will support our growth and delivery of new revenue streams.

 

Cash used in investing activities was $99.4 million during 2011 compared to $205.4 million during 2010. This decrease in cash used during 2011 was the result primarily of decreased payments related to the construction of our second-generation constellation during 2011, as the second-generation satellites neared completion, and the deferral of payments to contractors working on the construction of our next generation ground upgrades.

 

Cash Flows Provided by Financing Activities

 

Net cash provided by financing activities in 2012 decreased by $30.2 million to $52.4 million from $82.6 million in 2011. The decrease from 2011 to 2012 was attributable primarily to the issuance of $38.0 million of our 5% Notes during June 2011, which did not recur in 2012. We funded 2012 activities by borrowing under our Facility Agreement and drawing from our contingent equity account. We continue to seek additional financing to fund capital expenditures.

 

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Net cash provided by financing activities decreased by $112.1 million to $82.6 million during 2011 from $194.7 million in 2010. The decrease was due primarily to lower funding needs related to the construction of our second-generation satellites and related ground facilities. We funded these activities by borrowing under our Facility Agreement, issuing 5.0% Notes, and drawing from our contingent equity account. We spent approximately $85.5 million on these projects in 2011 compared to approximately $201.1 million during 2010. We also made $1.2 million non-recurring debt financing payments in 2011 compared to $0.1 million during 2010.

  

Cash Position and Indebtedness

 

As of December 31, 2012, cash and cash equivalents were $11.8 million; cash available under our Facility Agreement was $0.7 million (subject to certain restrictions, see below for further discussion); interest earned from funds previously held in our contingent equity account was $1.1 million, and amounts held in our debt service reserve account were $8.9 million; compared to cash and cash equivalents, cash available under our Facility Agreement and cash in our contingent equity account at December 31, 2011 of $9.9 million, $8.0 million and $45.8 million, respectively. The carrying amount of current and long-term debt outstanding was $655.9 million and $95.1 million, respectively, at December 31, 2012 compared to current and long-term debt of $0 million and $723.9 million, respectively, at December 31, 2011. On December 28, 2012, we entered into an equity line agreement with Terrapin under which we may require Terrapin to purchase up to $30.0 million of our common stock. See below for further discussion.

 

Facility Agreement

 

On June 5, 2009, we entered into a $586.3 million Facility Agreement with a syndicate of bank lenders, including BNP Paribas, Natixis, Société Générale, Caylon, Crédit Industriel et Commercial as arrangers and BNP Paribas as the security agent and the agent for the lenders under our Facility Agreement. COFACE, the French export credit agency, has provided a 95% guarantee to the lending syndicate of our obligations under the Facility Agreement. 

 

 The facility is scheduled to mature 84 months after the first repayment date, as amended. Scheduled semi-annual principal repayments will begin on June 30, 2013. The facility bears interest at a floating LIBOR rate, plus a margin of 2.07% through December 2012, increasing to 2.25% through December 2017 and 2.40% thereafter. Interest payments are due on a semi-annual basis.

 

The Facility Agreement, as amended, requires that:

 

following December 31, 2014, we maintain a minimum liquidity of $5.0 million;

 

we achieve for each period the following minimum adjusted consolidated EBITDA (as defined in the Facility Agreement):

 

Period  Minimum Amount 
      
7/1/11-6/30/12  $(5.0) million 
1/1/12-12/31/12  $7.0 million 
7/1/12-6/30/13  $65.0 million 
1/1/13-12/31/13  $78.0 million 

 

beginning in June 2013, we maintain a minimum debt service coverage ratio of 1.00:1.00, gradually increasing to a ratio of 1.50:1.00 through 2019; and

 

beginning in June 2013, we maintain a maximum net debt to adjusted consolidated EBITDA ratio of 7.25:1.00 on a last twelve months basis, gradually decreasing to 2.50:1.00 through 2019.

 

Our obligations under the Facility Agreement are guaranteed on a senior secured basis by all of our domestic subsidiaries and are secured by a first priority lien on substantially all of our assets and those of our domestic subsidiaries (other than FCC licenses), including patents and trademarks, 100% of the equity of our domestic subsidiaries and 65% of the equity of certain foreign subsidiaries.

 

We may not re-borrow amounts repaid. We must repay the loans (a) in full upon a change in control or (b) partially (i) if there are excess cash flows on certain dates, (ii) upon certain insurance and condemnation events and (iii) upon certain asset dispositions. In addition to the financial covenants described above, the Facility Agreement places limitations on our ability and the ability of our subsidiaries to incur debt, create liens, dispose of assets, carry out mergers and acquisitions, make loans, investments, distributions or other transfers and capital expenditures or enter into certain transactions with affiliates.

 

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Pursuant to the terms of the Facility Agreement, in June 2009 we were required to fund a total of $46.8 million to the debt service reserve account. The required amount was to be funded until the date that was six months prior to the first principal repayment date, currently scheduled for June 2013. The minimum required balance fluctuates over time based on the timing of principal and interest payment dates. In January 2013, the amount required to be funded into the debt service reserve account was reduced by approximately $8.9 million due to the timing of the first principal repayment date scheduled for June 2013. The agent for our Facility Agreement permitted us to withdraw this amount to pay certain capital expenditure costs associated with the fourth launch of our second-generation satellites in February 2013. To the extent the first repayment date is extended to a date later than June 2013, the $8.9 million may be required to be refunded into this account.

  

During the second quarter of 2012, we received two reservation of rights letters from the agent for our Facility Agreement identifying potential existing defaults of certain non-financial covenants in the Facility Agreement that may have occurred as a result of the Thales arbitration ruling and the subsequent settlement agreements reached with Thales related to the arbitration. (See Note 9 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of this arbitration.) The letters indicated that the lenders were evaluating their position with respect to the potential defaults. During the evaluation process, the lenders did not permit funding of the remaining $3.0 million available under the Facility Agreement to pay Thales for the remaining milestone payments on the second-generation satellites or allow us to draw funds from the contingent equity account.

 

On October 12, 2012, we entered into Waiver Letter No. 11, which permitted us to make a draw from the contingent equity account. In the waiver letter we acknowledged the lenders’ conclusion that events of default did occur as a result of our entering into settlement agreements with Thales related to the arbitration ruling. As of the date of this Report, the agent for our Facility Agreement has not notified us of the lenders’ intention to accelerate the debt; however, we have shown the borrowings as current on the December 31, 2012 balance sheet in accordance with applicable accounting rules. We are currently working with the lenders to seek all necessary waivers or amendments associated with any default issues, but there can be no assurance that we will be successful. On October 24, 2012, the lenders permitted funding of $2.3 million of the amount available under the Facility Agreement to make a milestone payment to Thales. In November and December 2012, the lenders permitted us to continue to withdraw the funds available in the contingent equity account. The lenders currently do not permit funding of the remaining $0.7 million available under the Facility Agreement.

 

Due to the launch delays, we expect that we may not be in compliance with certain financial and nonfinancial covenants specified in the Facility Agreement during the next 12 months. Projected noncompliance with covenants include, but are not limited to, minimum consolidated adjusted EBITDA, minimum debt service coverage ratio, minimum net debt to adjusted consolidated EBITDA, and final in-orbit acceptance of our second-generation satellites by April 30, 2013. If we cannot obtain either a waiver or an amendment, any of these failures to comply would represent an additional event of default. An event of default under the Facility Agreement would permit the lenders to accelerate the indebtedness under the Facility Agreement. That acceleration would permit acceleration of our obligations under other indebtedness that contains cross-acceleration provisions.

 

See Note 4 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of the Facility Agreement and other current and long-term debt.

 

Terrapin Common Stock Purchase Agreement

 

On December 28, 2012 we entered into a Common Stock Purchase Agreement with Terrapin pursuant to which we may, subject to certain conditions, require Terrapin to purchase up to $30.0 million of shares of our voting common stock over the 24-month term following the effective date of a resale registration statement. This type of arrangement is sometimes referred to as a committed equity line financing facility. From time to time over the 24-month term, and in our sole discretion, we may present Terrapin with up to 36 draw down notices requiring Terrapin to purchase a specified dollar amount of shares of our voting common stock. We will not sell Terrapin a number of shares of voting common stock which, when aggregated with all other shares of voting common stock then beneficially owned by Terrapin and its affiliates, would result in the beneficial ownership by Terrapin or any of its affiliates of more than 9.9% of our then issued and outstanding shares of voting common stock.

 

See Note 4 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of the Terrapin agreement.

 

Capital Expenditures

 

We have entered into various contractual agreements related to the procurement and deployment of our second-generation constellation and next-generation ground upgrades, as summarized below. We are currently in negotiations with certain contractors to defer some scheduled milestones and related payments to beyond 2013. The discussion below is based on our current contractual obligations to these contractors.

 

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Second-Generation Satellites

 

We have a contract with Thales for the construction of the second-generation low-earth orbit satellites and related services. We successfully completed launches of our second-generation satellites in October 2010, July 2011, December 2011 and February 2013.

 

We have a contract with Arianespace for the launch of these second-generation satellites and certain pre and post-launch. We have also incurred additional costs which are owed to Arianespace for launch delays.

  

The amount of capital expenditures incurred as of December 31, 2012 and estimated future capital expenditures (excluding capitalized interest) related to the construction and deployment of the satellites for our second-generation constellation and the launch services contract is presented in the table below (in thousands):

 

 

   Payments through
December 31,
   Estimated Future Payments 
Capital Expenditures  2012   2013   2014   Thereafter   Total 
Thales Second-Generation Satellites  $622,018    672   $   $   $622,690 
Arianespace Launch Services   207,375    8,625            216,000 
Launch Insurance   30,693    9,210            39,903 
Other Capital Expenditures and Capitalized Labor   49,931    10,211            60,142 
Total  $910,017   $28,718   $   $   $938,735 

 

As of December 31, 2012, $7.4 million of these capital expenditures were recorded in accounts payable and accrued expenses.

 

Next-Generation Gateways and Other Ground Facilities

 

In May 2008, we entered into an agreement with Hughes to design, supply and implement (a) RAN ground network equipment and software upgrades for installation at a number of our satellite gateway ground stations and (b) satellite interface chips to be a part of the UTS in various next-generation Globalstar devices. In August 2009, we amended this agreement extending the performance schedule by 15 months and revising certain payment milestones. In March 2010, we further amended the contract adding new features, including the option to purchase additional RANs and other software and hardware improvements at pre-negotiated prices.

 

In October 2008, we signed an agreement with Ericsson, a leading global provider of technology and services to telecom operators. According to the contract, including subsequent additions, Ericsson will work with us to develop, implement and maintain a ground interface, or core network, system that will be installed at our satellite gateway ground stations.

 

The following table presents the amount of actual and contractual capital expenditures (excluding capitalized interest) related to the construction of the ground component and related costs (in thousands): 

 

   Payments through
 December 31,
   Estimated Future Payments 
Capital Expenditures  2012   2013   2014   Thereafter   Total 
Hughes second-generation ground component (including research and development expense)  $60,241   $25,259   $9,307   $10,791   $105,598 
Ericsson ground network   4,184    4,957    18,629    1,266    29,036 
Total  $64,425   $30,216   $27,936   $12,057   $134,634 

 

As of December 31, 2012, we recorded $20.5 million of these capital expenditures in accounts payable.

 

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In December 2012, we entered into an agreement with Hughes to extend to March 28, 2013 our deadline to make payments previously due under the contract, provided we made payments of $0.2 million in January 2013 and $0.8 million in March 2013. We have made the January payment. The deferred payments continue to incur interest at the rate of 10% per annum. As of December 31, 2012 we had incurred and capitalized $72.7 million of costs related to this contract, of which $17.9 million is recorded in accounts payable. If we terminate the contract for convenience, we must make a final payment of $20.0 million in either cash or our common stock at our election.  If we elect to pay in our common stock, Hughes will have the option either to accept the common stock or instruct us to complete a block sale of the stock and deliver the proceeds to Hughes. If Hughes chooses to accept common stock, the number of shares it will receive will be calculated based on the final payment amount plus 5%.

 

In January 2013, we further amended our contract with Hughes to extend the schedule of the RAN and UTS program and to revise the remaining payment milestones and program milestones to reflect the revised program timeline. This amendment extended certain payments previously due in 2013 to 2014 and beyond.

 

In February 2013, we entered into an agreement with Ericsson which deferred to the earlier of June 1, 2013, or the close of a financing, approximately $2.6 million in milestone payments due under the contract, provided we make two payments of $0.1 million each in February 2013. We have made both payments. The remaining milestones previously scheduled under the contract were deferred to later in 2013 and beyond. The deferred payments will continue to incur interest at a rate of 6.5% per annum. As of December 31, 2012 we had incurred and capitalized $6.8 million of costs related to this contract, of which we recorded $2.6 million in accounts payable. If we terminate the contract for convenience, we must make a final payment of $10.0 million in either cash or our common stock at our election. If we elect to make payment in common stock, Ericsson will have the option either to accept the common stock or instruct us to complete a block sale of the common stock and deliver the proceeds to Ericsson. If Ericsson chooses to accept common stock, the number of shares it will receive will be calculated based on the final payment amount plus 5%.

 

In accordance with the French Ministry’s authorization to operate our second-generation satellite constellation, we are currently on schedule to enhance the existing gateway operations in Aussaguel, France to include satellite operations and control functions during 2013. The above table does not include any costs for this facility or any other capital expenditures not yet contracted for or capitalized labor.

 

Contractual Obligations and Commitments

 

Contractual obligations at December 31, 2012 are as follows (in thousands): 

 

Contractual Obligations:  2013   2014   2015   2016   2017   Thereafter   Total 
Debt obligations (1)  $658,146   $   $   $   $   $281,424   $939,570 
Interest on long-term debt (2)   2,694                        2,694 
Purchase obligations (3), (4), (5), (6), (7)   59,110    27,936    12,057                99,103 
Contract termination charge (8)   23,166                        23,166 
Operating lease obligations   1,597    872    815    767    776    1,403    6,230 
Pension obligations   964    981    970    963    958    4,985    9,821 
Liability for contingent consideration (9)   2,660    2,081                    4,741 
Total  $748,337   $31,870   $13,842   $1,730   $1,734   $287,812   $1,085,325 

 

(1)We were not in compliance with certain financial and nonfinancial covenants under the Facility Agreement as of December 31, 2012. As of the date of this Report, the agent for the Facility Agreement has not notified us of its intention to accelerate the debt; however, we have shown the borrowings as current on the December 31, 2012 balance sheet in accordance with applicable accounting rules. We have shown all amounts due under the Facility Agreement in 2013 in the table above. Amounts for the Facility Agreement assume borrowing of the entire $586.3 million under our Facility Agreement. If we regain compliance with certain financial and nonfinancial covenants, principal amounts due under the Facility Agreement will be $34.2 million in 2013, $60.5 million in 2014, $64.1 million in 2015, $67.9 million in 2016, $81.7 million 2017 and $277.9 million thereafter.

 

The maturity date of the 5.75% Convertible Senior Unsecured Notes is April 1, 2028; however the holders of the Notes can require us to purchase any or all of the Notes at par in cash on April 1, 2013. For purposes of this schedule, the Notes are shown as due in 2013 as a result of this put option. As of December 31, 2012, the purchase price of the 5.75% Notes was approximately $71.8 million, which is included in 2013 obligations above. We currently do not have the funds to purchase all of these Notes if they are put to us for purchase at April 1, 2013 and are seeking alternatives to avoid any default.

 

The holders of our remaining indebtedness may accelerate it upon default of related covenants or acceleration of other indebtedness. (See Note 4 to our Consolidated Financial Statements) Debt obligations include interest to be paid in common stock or payment in kind interest (“PIK”). Such amounts are shown as due in the year the underlying debt is due.

  

40
 

 

(2)Amounts include projected interest payments to be made in cash. Amounts include projected interest to be paid on the 5.75% Convertible Senior Unsecured Notes through the first put date of April 1, 2013, assuming the Notes will be refinanced in 2013 by issuing additional debt, and we cannot estimate interest expense in future periods as the terms of any refinancing are unknown at this time.

 

As stated above, we were not in compliance with certain financial and nonfinancial covenants under the Facility Agreement as of December 31, 2012. Accordingly, we have only shown accrued interest through December 31, 2012 as due in 2013 and no other amounts for interest on the Facility Agreement. This debt bears interest at a floating rate, accordingly, we estimated our interest costs in future periods. If we regain compliance with certain financial and nonfinancial covenants, interest due under the Facility Agreement will be $17.5 million in 2013, $17.9 million in 2014, $16.7 million in 2015, $17.4 million in 2016, $15.5 million 2017 and $26.1 million thereafter.

 

(3)We have purchase commitments with Thales, Arianespace, Ericsson, Hughes and other vendors related to the procurement and deployment of our second-generation network.

 

See Note 8 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of our contractual obligations.

 

(4)We have converted the purchase obligations under our core contract for the construction of our second-generation satellites to U.S. dollars using an exchange rate of €1.00 = $1.42. We have converted all other purchase obligations for our second-generation satellites and other launch costs to U.S. dollars using an estimated exchange rate of €1.00 = $1.30.

 

(5)Amounts based on when cash payment is scheduled to be made.

 

(6)We will pay approximately $0.7 million of purchase obligations in 2013 using the remaining funds under our Facility Agreement, which is subject to certain restrictions (see Note 4 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion).

 

(7)We have a remaining commitment to purchase $8.8 million of mobile phones, services and other equipment under various commercial agreements with Qualcomm. We have been in negotiations with Qualcomm to terminate the current agreement as neither party is performing under the terms of the current agreement. We expect to negotiate the termination of this contract in 2013 and have not included these obligations in the table above. We expect that the termination of this contract will not require us to pay cash in 2013, as amounts paid to Qualcomm, if any, will be made in our common stock or deferred to 2014. During 2012, we did not purchase any amounts related to this contract.

 

(8)In June 2012, we settled our prior commercial disputes with Thales, including those disputes that were the subject of an arbitration award, for €17,530,000. This amount represented one-third of the termination charges awarded to Thales in the arbitration. The payment is due on the later of the effective date of the new contract for the purchase of additional second-generation satellites and the occurrence of the effective date of the financing for the purchase of these satellites and the first draw from the financing. This amount is included in 2013 above, although the timing of any payment is indefinite and undeterminable. For purposes of the table above, the termination charge is converted to U.S. dollars using the exchange rate in effect at December 31, 2012. See Note 9 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion.

 

(9)In connection with our acquisition of Axonn in 2009, we are obligated to pay contingent consideration in stock for earnouts based on sales of existing and new products over a five-year earnout period ending December 31, 2014. Amounts above are an estimate of the future liability.

 

Liquidity

   

As discussed in Note 2 to our Consolidated Financial Statements, we have developed a plan to improve operations and to complete the development, construction, and activation of additional second-generation satellites and next-generation ground upgrades. We currently lack sufficient resources to meet our existing contractual obligations over the next 12 months. As a result, there is substantial doubt that we can continue as a going concern. In order to continue as a going concern, we must obtain additional external financing; amend the Facility Agreement and certain other contractual obligations; and restructure the 5.75% Notes. In addition, substantial uncertainties remain related to our noncompliance with certain of the Facility Agreement’s covenants (see Note 4 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion) and the impact and timing of our plans to improve operating cash flows and to restructure our contractual obligations. If the resolution of these uncertainties materially and negatively impacts cash and liquidity, our ability to continue to execute our business plans will be adversely affected. Completion of the foregoing actions is not solely within our control and we may be unable to successfully complete one or all of these actions.

 

Our principal long-term liquidity needs include making improvements to our constellation, gateways and other ground facilities, funding our working capital and cash operating needs, including any growth in our business, and to fund repayment of our indebtedness, both principal and interest, when due. We expect sources of long-term liquidity to include the exercise of warrants and other additional debt and equity financings which have not yet been arranged. We cannot assure you that we can obtain sufficient additional financing on acceptable terms, if at all. We also expect cash flows from operations to be a source of long-term liquidity once we have fully deployed our second-generation satellite constellation. We are not in a position to estimate when, or if, these longer-term plans will be completed and the effect this will have on our performance and liquidity.

 

41
 

 

Off-Balance Sheet Transactions 

 

We have no material off-balance sheet transactions.

 

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

 

For a discussion of recent accounting guidance and the expected impact that the guidance and the expected impact that the guidance could have on our consolidated financial statements, see Note 1 to our Consolidated Financial Statements – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies.

  

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

 

Our services and products are sold, distributed or available in over 120 countries. Our international sales are made primarily in U.S. dollars, Canadian dollars, Brazilian Reais and Euros. In some cases, insufficient supplies of U.S. currency may require us to accept payment in other foreign currencies. We reduce our currency exchange risk from revenues in currencies other than the U.S. dollar by requiring payment in U.S. dollars whenever possible and purchasing foreign currencies on the spot market when rates are favorable. We currently do not purchase hedging instruments to hedge foreign currencies. We are obligated to enter into currency hedges with the original lenders no later than 90 days after any fiscal quarter during which more than 25% of revenues is denominated in a single currency other than U.S. or Canadian dollars. Otherwise, we cannot enter into hedging agreements other than interest rate cap agreements or other hedges described above without the consent of the agent for the Facility Agreement, and with that consent the counterparties may only be the original lenders.

 

As discussed in "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources — Contractual Obligations and Commitments," we have entered into two separate contracts with Thales to construct low earth orbit satellites for satellites in our second-generation satellite constellation and to provide launch-related and operations support services. A substantial majority of the payments under the Thales agreements are denominated in Euros.

 

Our interest rate risk arises from our variable rate debt under our Facility Agreement, under which loans bear interest at a floating rate based on the LIBOR. In order to minimize the interest rate risk, we completed an arrangement with the lenders under the Facility Agreement to limit the interest to which we are exposed. The interest rate cap provides limits on the 6-month Libor rate (Base Rate) used to calculate the coupon interest on outstanding amounts on the Facility Agreement of 4.00% from the date of issuance through December 2012. Thereafter, the Base Rate is capped at 5.50% should the Base Rate not exceed 6.5%. Should the Base Rate exceed 6.5%, our base rate will be 1% less than the then 6-month Libor rate. The applicable margin from the Base Rate ranges from 2.07% to 2.4% through the termination date of the facility. Assuming that we borrowed the entire $586.3 million under the Facility Agreement, a 1.0% change in interest rates would result in a change to interest expense of approximately $5.9 million annually.

 

42
 

 

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

    Page
Audited consolidated financial statements of Globalstar, Inc.  
Report of Crowe Horwath LLP, independent registered public accounting firm   44
Consolidated balance sheets at December 31, 2012 and 2011   45
Consolidated statements of operations for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010   46
Consolidated statements of comprehensive loss for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010   47
Consolidated statements of stockholders’ equity for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010   48
Consolidated statements of cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010   49
Notes to consolidated financial statements   50

 

43
 

 

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

 

Board of Directors and Stockholders

Globalstar, Inc.

 

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Globalstar, Inc. (“Globalstar”) as of December 31, 2012 and 2011, and the related statements of operations, comprehensive loss, stockholders' equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2012. These financial statements are the responsibility of Globalstar’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits.

 

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. Globalstar is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. Our audit included consideration of internal control over financial reporting as a basis for designing audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of Globalstar’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

 

In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Globalstar as of December 31, 2012 and 2011, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2012, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

 

The accompanying financial statements have been prepared assuming that Globalstar will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 2 to the financial statements, Globalstar has suffered recurring losses from operations and is not in compliance with certain financial and nonfinancial covenants under certain long-term debt agreements. This creates a liquidity deficiency that raises substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern. Management’s plans in regard to these matters are also described in Note 2. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

 

  /s/ Crowe Horwath LLP
Oak Brook, Illinois  
March 15, 2013  

 

 

44
 

 

GLOBALSTAR, INC.

 

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(In thousands, except par value and share data)

 

   December 31, 
   2012   2011 
ASSETS          
Current assets:          
Cash and cash equivalents  $11,792   $9,951 
Restricted cash   46,777     
Accounts receivable, net of allowance of $6,667 and $7,296, respectively   13,944    12,393 
Inventory   42,181    41,848 
Deferred financing costs   34,622     
Prepaid expenses and other current assets   5,233    5,281 
Total current assets   154,549    69,473 
Property and equipment, net   1,215,156    1,217,718 
Restricted cash       46,776 
Deferred financing costs   16,883    53,482 
Advances for inventory   9,158    9,158 
Intangible and other assets, net   8,029    23,798 
Total assets  $1,403,775   $1,420,405 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY          
Current liabilities:          
Current portion of long-term debt  $655,874   $ 
Accounts payable, including contractor payables of $27,747 and $32,275, respectively   35,685    47,808 
Accrued contract termination charge   23,166     
Accrued expenses   28,164    28,806 
Payables to affiliates   230    378 
Deferred revenue   18,041    14,588 
Total current liabilities   761,160    91,580 
Long-term debt, less current portion   95,155    723,888 
Employee benefit obligations   7,221    7,407 
Derivative liabilities   25,175    38,996 
Deferred revenue   4,640    7,295 
Other non-current liabilities   15,880    17,444 
Total non-current liabilities   148,071    795,030 
           
Commitments and contingent liabilities (Notes 8 and 9)          
           
Stockholders’ equity:          
Preferred Stock of $0.0001 par value; 100,000,000 shares authorized and none issued and outstanding at December 31, 2012 and 2011:          
Series A Preferred Convertible Stock of $0.0001 par value; one share authorized and none issued and outstanding at December 31, 2012 and 2011        
Voting Common Stock of $0.0001 par value; 865,000,000 shares authorized; 354,085,753 and 297,175,777 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively   35    30 
Nonvoting Common Stock of $0.0001 par value; 135,000,000 shares authorized; 135,000,000 and 55,881,512 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively   14    5 
Additional paid-in capital   864,175    792,584 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss   (1,758)   (3,100)
Retained deficit   (367,922)   (255,724)
Total stockholders’ equity   494,544    533,795 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity  $1,403,775   $1,420,405 

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

 

45
 

 

GLOBALSTAR, INC.

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

   Year Ended December 31, 
   2012   2011   2010 
Revenue:               
Service revenues  $57,468   $55,397   $50,937 
Subscriber equipment sales   18,850    17,430    17,004 
Total revenue   76,318    72,827    67,941 
Operating expenses:               
Cost of services (exclusive of depreciation, amortization, and accretion shown separately below)   23,228    29,246    31,172 
Cost of subscriber equipment sales   13,280    11,927    13,182 
Cost of subscriber equipment sales - reduction in the value of inventory   1,397    8,826    10,862 
Marketing, general, and administrative   34,339    42,436    41,827 
Reduction in the value of long-lived assets   7,218    3,578    3,249 
Contract termination charge   22,048         
Depreciation, amortization, and accretion   69,801    50,049    27,418 
Total operating expenses   171,311    146,062    127,710 
Loss from operations   (94,993)   (73,235)   (59,769)
Other income (expense):               
Interest income and expense, net of amounts capitalized   (21,486)   (4,809)   (4,597)
Derivative gain (loss)   6,974    23,839    (29,975)
Other   (2,280)   (828)   (2,730)
Total other income (expense)   (16,792)   18,202    (37,302)
Loss before income taxes   (111,785)   (55,033)   (97,071)
Income tax expense (benefit)   413    (109)   396 
Net loss  $(112,198)  $(54,924)  $(97,467)
Loss per common share:               
Basic  $(0.29)  $(0.18)  $(0.34)
Diluted   (0.29)   (0.18)   (0.34)
Weighted-average shares outstanding:               
Basic   388,453    299,144    285,316 
Diluted   388,453    299,144    285,316 

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

 

46
 

 

GLOBALSTAR, INC.

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

(In thousands)

 

   Year Ended December 31, 
   2012   2011   2010 
Net loss  $(112,198)  $(54,924)  $(97,467)
Other comprehensive income (loss):               
Defined benefit pension plan liability adjustment   78    (3,190)   (84)
Net foreign currency translation adjustment   1,264    358    1,534 
Total comprehensive loss  $(110,856)  $(57,756)  $(96,017)

 

47
 

 

GLOBALSTAR, INC.

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

(In thousands)

 

   Common
Shares
   Common
Stock
Amount
   Additional
Paid-In
Capital
   Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
   Retained
Deficit
   Total 
Balances – December 31, 2009   291,134   $29   $700,814   $(1,718)  $(103,333)  $595,792 
Net issuance of restricted stock awards and recognition of stock-based compensation   4,183    1    1,269            1,270 
Contribution of services           168            168 
Warrants issued associated with Contingent Equity Agreement           11,940            11,940 
Common stock issued in connection with conversions of 8.00% Notes   3,246        3,415            3,415 
Warrants exercised associated with the 8.00% Notes   8,110    1    15,233            15,234 
Conversion of Thermo debt to equity   2,526        2,426            2,426 
Issuance of stock in connection with contingent consideration   760        1,190            1,190 
Other comprehensive income               1,450        1,450 
Net loss                   (97,467)   (97,467)
Balances – December 31, 2010   309,959    31    736,455    (268)   (200,800)   535,418 
Net issuance of restricted stock awards and recognition of stock-based compensation   994        2,017            2,017 
Contribution of services           319            319 
Warrants issued associated with Contingent Equity Agreement           5,955            5,955 
Common stock issued in connection with conversions of 8.00% Notes   773        942            942 
Warrants exercised associated with the 8.00% Notes   575        1,064            1,064 
Issuance of stock in connection with interest payments for 8.00% Notes   1,300        572            572 
Issuance of stock in connection with contingent consideration   1,857        1,827            1,827 
Issuance of warrants and beneficial conversion feature associated with 5.0% Notes           24,868            24,868 
Issuance of stock for legal settlements and other transactions   566        644            644 
Issuance of stock to Thermo for contingent equity draws   36,606    4    17,746            17,750 
Issuance of stock through employee stock purchase plan   428        175            175 
Other comprehensive loss               (2,832)       (2,832)
Net loss                   (54,924)   (54,924)
Balances – December 31, 2011   353,058    35    792,584    (3,100)   (255,724)   533,795 
Net issuance of restricted stock awards and recognition of stock-based compensation   711        706            706 
Contribution of services           529            529 
Warrants issued associated with Contingent Equity Agreement           8,079            8,079 
Common stock issued in connection with conversions of 8.00% Notes   1,903        1,338            1,338 
Warrants exercised associated with the 8.00% Notes   191        420            420 
Issuance of stock in connection with interest payments for 8.00% Notes   2,737    1    911            912 
Issuance of stock in connection with contingent consideration   5,232    1    2,208            2,209 
Issuance of stock for legal and consulting services           24            24 
Issuance of stock to Thermo for contingent equity draws   124,310    12    57,238            57,250 
Issuance of stock through employee stock purchase plan   944        138            138 
Other comprehensive income               1,342        1,342 
Net loss                   (112,198)   (112,198)
Balances – December 31, 2012   489,086   $49   $864,175   $(1,758)  $(367,922)  $494,544 

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

 

48
 

 

GLOBALSTAR, INC.

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(In thousands)

 

   Year Ended December 31, 
   2012   2011   2010 
Cash flows provided by (used in) operating activities:               
Net loss  $(112,198)  $(54,924)  $(97,467)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash from operating activities:               
Depreciation, amortization, and accretion   69,801    50,049    27,418 
Change in fair value of derivative assets and liabilities   (6,974)   (23,839)   29,975 
Stock-based compensation expense   793    1,995    878 
Amortization of deferred financing costs   7,907    3,673    3,355 
Reduction in the value of long-lived assets and inventory   8,615    12,404    16,014 
Provision for bad debts   1,097    1,995    774 
Noncash interest and accretion expense   6,525         
Loss on equity method investments   335    420    927 
Contract termination charge   22,048         
Other, net   1,239    2,517    161 
Unrealized foreign currency loss   1,456    1,001     
Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of acquisitions:               
Accounts receivable   (2,875)   (978)   (5,201)
Inventory   (1,018)   4,252    (1,402)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets   855    354    526 
Other assets   5,427    (1,485)   (4,217)
Accounts payable and accrued expenses   3,431    (1,291)   2,798 
Payables to affiliates   (148)   (332)   163 
Other non-current liabilities   (224)   (173)   1,428 
Deferred revenue   782    (1,141)   532 
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities   6,874    (5,503)   (23,338)
Cash flows used in investing activities:               
Second-generation satellites, ground and related launch costs   (56,679)   (85,589)   (201,124)
Property and equipment additions   (781)   (2,594)   (7,286)
Investment in businesses   (550)   (800)   (1,110)
Restricted cash       (10,436)   4,129 
Net cash used in investing activities   (58,010)   (99,419)   (205,391)
Cash flows from financing activities:               
Borrowings from Facility Agreement   7,375    18,659    188,417 
Proceeds from contingent equity account   45,800    14,200     
Proceeds from the issuance of 5.0% convertible notes       38,000     
Borrowings from subordinated loan agreement       12,500     
Payment of deferred financing costs   (1,033)   (1,246)   (70)
Proceeds from issuance of common stock and exercise of warrants   244    525    6,323 
Net cash from financing activities   52,386    82,638    194,670 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash   591    (782)   (805)
Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents   1,841    (23,066)   (34,864)
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period   9,951    33,017    67,881 
Cash and cash equivalents, end of period  $11,792   $9,951   $33,017 
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:               
Cash paid for:               
Interest  $27,383   $19,357   $17,193 
Income taxes   223    97    111 
Supplemental disclosure of non-cash financing and investing activities:               
Reduction in accrued second-generation satellites and ground costs   10,214    4,798    37,590 
Increase in capitalized accrued interest for second-generation satellites and ground costs   2,752    1,529    1,666 
Capitalization of the accretion of debt discount and amortization of prepaid financing costs   15,680    24,200    23,256 
Capitalized interest paid in common stock on the 5% and 8% Notes   5,594    4,605    3,790 
Payments made in common stock   2,354    2,287     
Reduction in assets and liabilities due to note conversions and warrant exercises   1,812    1,538    7,685 
Conversion of contingent equity account derivative liability to equity   5,853    5,955    11,940 
Value of warrants issued in connection with the contingent equity account loan fee   2,226    8,318    9,717 
Recognition of a beneficial conversion feature and contingent put feature on long-term debt       18,603     
Value of warrants issued in connection with raising capital and debt       8,081     
Conversion of convertible notes into common stock   2,000    1,000    6,335 

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements. 

 

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GLOBALSTAR, INC.

 

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

1. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

Business

 

Globalstar, Inc. (“Globalstar” or the “Company”) was formed as a Delaware limited liability company in November 2003 and was converted into a Delaware corporation on March 17, 2006.

 

Globalstar is a leading provider of Mobile Satellite Services (“MSS”) including voice and data communications services globally via satellite. Globalstar’s first-generation network, originally owned by Globalstar, L.P. (“Old Globalstar”), was designed, built and launched in the late 1990s by a technology partnership led by Loral Space and Communications (“Loral”) and Qualcomm Incorporated (“Qualcomm”). On February 15, 2002, Old Globalstar and three of its subsidiaries filed voluntary petitions under Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code. In 2004, Thermo Capital Partners LLC (“Thermo”) became Globalstar’s principal owner, and Globalstar completed the acquisition of the business and assets of Old Globalstar. Thermo remains Globalstar’s largest stockholder. Globalstar’s Executive Chairman and CEO controls Thermo and its affiliates. Two other members of Globalstar’s Board of Directors are also directors, officers or minority equity owners of various Thermo entities.

 

The Company’s satellite communications business, by providing critical mobile communications to subscribers, serves principally the following markets: recreation and personal; government; public safety and disaster relief; oil and gas; maritime and fishing; natural resources, mining and forestry; construction; utilities; and transportation.

 

Globalstar currently provides the following communications services via satellite:

  two-way voice communication and data transmissions (“Duplex”) between mobile or fixed devices; and
  one-way data transmissions between a mobile or fixed device that transmits its location or other telemetry information and a central monitoring station, which includes the SPOT family of consumer market products (“SPOT”) and commercial Simplex products.

 

The equipment Globalstar offers to customers consists principally of:

  Duplex two-way voice and data products;
  Consumer retail SPOT products; and
  Commercial Simplex one-way transmission products.

 

Globalstar provides Duplex, SPOT and Simplex products and services to customers directly and through resellers and independent gateway operators (“IGOs”).

 

Use of Estimates in Preparation of Financial Statements

 

 The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from estimates. Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year consolidated financial statements to conform to current year presentation. The Company evaluates estimates on an ongoing basis. Significant estimates include the value of derivative instruments, the allowance for doubtful accounts, the net realizable value of inventory, the useful life and value of property and equipment, the value of stock-based compensation, the reserve for product warranties, and income taxes.

 

Principles of Consolidation

 

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Globalstar and all its subsidiaries. All significant inter-company transactions and balances have been eliminated in the consolidation.

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on hand and highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less.

 

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Restricted Cash

 

 Restricted cash is comprised of funds held in escrow by the agent for the Company’s senior secured facility agreement (the “Facility Agreement”) to secure the Company’s principal and interest payment obligations under certain circumstances related to its Facility Agreement. In January 2013, the agent for the Company’s Facility Agreement permitted the Company to withdraw $9.8 million to pay certain capital expenditure costs for the fourth launch of the Company’s second-generation satellites from the debt service reserve account that were in excess of the required balance. Generally, the required balance represents the sum of certain future principal and interest payments under the Facility Agreement. The Company classifies restricted cash for certain debt instruments consistent with the classification of the related debt outstanding at the end of the reporting period.

 

Derivative Instruments

 

The Company enters into financing arrangements that are hybrid instruments that contain embedded derivative features. Derivative instruments are recognized as either assets or liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets and are measured at fair value with gains or losses recognized in earnings. Embedded derivatives that are not clearly and closely related to the host contract are bifurcated and recognized at fair value with changes in fair value recognized as either a gain or loss in earnings if they can be reliably measured. The Company determines the fair value of derivative instruments based on available market data using appropriate valuation models provided by independent valuation experts.

  

Concentration of Credit Risk

 

Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash. Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash consist primarily of highly liquid short-term investments deposited with financial institutions that are of high credit quality.

  

Accounts Receivable

 

Accounts receivable are uncollateralized, without interest and consist primarily of on-going service revenue and equipment receivables. The Company performs on-going credit evaluations of its customers and records specific allowances for bad debts based on factors such as current trends, the length of time the receivables are past due and historical collection experience. Accounts receivable are considered past due in accordance with the contractual terms of the arrangements. Accounts receivable balances that are determined likely to be uncollectible are included in the allowance for doubtful accounts. After all attempts to collect a receivable have failed, the receivable is written off against the allowance.

 

The following is a summary of the activity in the allowance for doubtful accounts (in thousands):

 

   Year Ended December 31, 
   2012   2011   2010 
Balance at beginning of period  $7,296   $5,971   $5,735 
Provision, net of recoveries   1,097    1,995    519 
Write-offs and other adjustments   (1,726)   (670)   (283)
Balance at end of period  $6,667   $7,296   $5,971 

 

Inventory

 

Inventory consists of purchased products, including fixed and mobile user terminals and accessories. Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or market value. Cost is computed using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method which determines the acquisition cost on a FIFO basis. Inventory write-downs are measured as the difference between the cost of inventory and the market value, and are recorded as a cost of subscriber equipment sales - reduction in the value of inventory. At the point of any inventory write downs to market, a new, lower cost basis for that inventory is established, and any subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration of the former cost basis or increase in that newly established cost basis. Product sales and returns from the previous 12 months and future demand forecasts are reviewed and excess and obsolete inventory is written off. A liability is recorded for firm, noncancelable, and unconditional purchase commitments with contract manufacturers and suppliers for quantities in excess of future demand forecasts consistent with the valuation of excess and obsolete inventory. Inventory allowances are recorded for inventories with a lower market value. In recognition of change in the market and obsolescence, the Company wrote down the value of inventory by $1.4 million, $8.8 million and $10.9 million in the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively.

 

Property and Equipment

 

The Globalstar System includes costs for the design, manufacture, test, and launch of a constellation of low earth orbit satellites (the “Space Component”), and primary and backup control centers and gateways (the “Ground Component”).  Property and equipment is stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation.

 

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Costs associated with the design, manufacture, test and launch of the Company’s Space and Ground Components are capitalized. Capitalized costs associated with the Company’s Space Component, Ground Component, and other assets are tracked by fixed asset category and are allocated to each asset as it comes into service. When a second-generation satellite is incorporated into the second-generation constellation, the Company begins depreciation on the date the satellite is placed into service, which is the point that the satellite reaches its orbital altitude, over its estimated useful life.

 

The Company capitalizes interest costs associated with the construction of its Space and Ground Components. Capitalized interest is added to the cost of the underlying asset and is amortized over the useful life of the asset after it is placed into service. As the status of the Company’s construction in progress decreases, specifically due to the Company placing second-generation satellites into service, the Company will record interest expense under GAAP as the construction in progress balance comes to completion.

 

Depreciation is provided using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets, as follows:

 

Globalstar System:    
Space component   6.5 years from commencement of service for the first-generation satellites launched in 2007
    15 years from the commencement of service for the second-generation satellites
Ground component   Up to periods of 15 years from commencement of service
Furniture, fixtures & equipment   3 to 10 years
Leasehold improvements   Shorter of lease term or the estimated useful lives of the improvements
Buildings   18 years

 

The Company evaluates the appropriateness of estimated useful lives assigned to property and equipment and revises such lives to the extent warranted by changing facts and circumstances. When adjustments are made to the estimated useful lives, the remaining carrying amount of these satellites is depreciated prospectively over the remaining useful lives.

 

For assets that are sold or retired, including satellites that are de-orbited and no longer providing services, the estimated cost and accumulated depreciation is removed from property and equipment.

  

The Company assesses the impairment of long-lived assets when indicators of impairment are present.  Recoverability of assets is measured by comparing the carrying amounts of the assets to the future undiscounted cash flows, excluding financing costs. If impairment is determined to exist, any related impairment loss is calculated based on fair value. The Company records losses from the in-orbit failure of a satellite in the period it is determined that the satellite is not recoverable.

 

Deferred Financing Costs

 

These costs represent costs incurred in obtaining long-term debt. These costs are amortized as additional interest expense over the term of the corresponding debt, or the first put option date for the convertible notes. As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, the Company had net deferred financing costs of $51.5 million and $53.5 million, respectively. Approximately $6.3 million, $3.7 million, and $3.4 million of deferred financing costs were recorded as interest expense for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The Company classifies deferred financing costs consistent with the classification of the related debt outstanding at the end of the reporting period.

 

Stock-Based Compensation

 

 The Company recognizes compensation expense in the financial statements for both employee and non-employee share-based awards based on the grant date fair value of those awards. Additionally, stock-based compensation expense includes an estimate for pre-vesting forfeitures and is recognized over the requisite service periods of the awards on a straight-line basis, which is generally commensurate with the vesting term.

 

Asset Retirement Obligation

 

Liabilities arising from legal obligations associated with the retirement of long-lived assets are measured at fair value and recorded as a liability. Upon initial recognition of a liability for retirement obligations, the Company records an asset, which is depreciated over the life of the asset to be retired.

 

The Company capitalizes, as part of the carrying amount, the estimated costs associated with the eventual retirement of gateways owned by the Company. As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, the Company had accrued approximately $1.0 million and $0.9 million, respectively, for asset retirement obligations. The Company believes this estimate will be sufficient to satisfy the Company’s obligation under leases to remove the gateway equipment and restore the sites to their original condition.

 

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Fair Value of Financial Instruments

 

The carrying amount of accounts receivable and accounts payable is equal to or approximates fair value. The Company believes it is not practicable to determine the fair value of its long-term debt. Unlike typical long-term debt, interest rates and other terms for long-term debt are not readily available and generally involve a variety of factors, including due diligence by the debt holders. As such, it is not practicable to determine the fair value of long-term debt without incurring significant additional costs. It is estimated that the fair value of long-term debt is less than its carrying amount.

 

Revenue Recognition and Deferred Revenues

 

Duplex

 

For Duplex customers and resellers, the Company recognizes revenue for monthly access fees in the period services are rendered.  Access fees represent the minimum monthly charge for each line of service based on its associated rate plan.  The Company also recognizes revenue for airtime minutes in excess of the monthly access fees in the period such minutes are used. Under certain annual plans where customers prepay for minutes, revenue is deferred until the minutes are used or the prepaid time period expires. Unused minutes are accumulated until they expire, usually one year after activation. In addition, the Company offers other annual plans whereby the customer is charged an annual fee to access the Company’s system.  These fees are recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the plan.  In some cases, the Company charges a per minute rate whereby it recognizes the revenue when each minute is used.

 

Credits granted to customers are expensed or charged against revenue or deferred revenue upon issuance.

 

Certain subscriber acquisition costs, including such items as dealer commissions, internal sales commissions and equipment subsidies, are expensed at the time of the related sale.

   

SPOT and Simplex

 

The Company sells SPOT and Simplex services as annual plans or multi-year plans and defers and recognizes revenue ratably over the service term, beginning when the service is activated by the customer. Royalty payments are deferred and recognized as expense over the contract term.

 

IGOs

 

The Company owns and operates its satellite constellation and earns a portion of its revenues through the sale of airtime minutes or data on a wholesale basis to IGOs. Revenue from services provided to IGOs is recognized based upon airtime minutes used by customers of the IGOs and contractual fee arrangements. Where collection is uncertain, revenue is recognized when cash payment is received.

 

 Equipment

 

Subscriber equipment revenue represents the sale of fixed and mobile user terminals, accessories and SPOT and Simplex products. The Company recognizes revenue upon shipment provided title and risk of loss have passed to the customer, persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, the fee is fixed and determinable and collection is probable.

 

Other

 

At times, the Company will sell subscriber equipment through multi-element contracts that bundle subscriber equipment with services. When the Company sells subscriber equipment and services in bundled arrangements and determines that it has separate units of accounting, the Company will allocate the bundled contract price among the various contract deliverables based on each deliverable’s relative fair value. The Company will determine vendor specific objective evidence of fair value by assessing sales prices of subscriber equipment and services when they are sold to customers on a stand-alone basis.

 

The Company does not record sales taxes collected from customers in revenue.

 

The Company provides certain engineering services to assist customers in developing new applications related to its system. The revenues associated with these services are recorded when the services are rendered, and the expenses are recorded when incurred. The Company records revenues and costs associated with long term engineering contracts on the percentage-of-completion method of accounting.

 

Research and Development Expenses

 

Research and development costs were $0.3 million, $1.9 million, and $3.7 million for 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively. These costs are expensed as incurred as cost of services and primarily include the cost of new product development, chip set design, software development and engineering.

 

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Advertising Expenses 

 

Advertising costs were $1.9 million, $2.0 million, and $2.6 million for 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively. These costs are expensed as incurred as marketing, general, and administrative expenses.

 

Warranty Expense

 

Warranty terms extend from 90 days on equipment accessories to one year for fixed and mobile user terminals. An accrual is made when it is estimable and probable that a loss has been incurred based on historical experience. Warranty costs are based on historical trends in warranty charges as a percentage of gross product shipments. A provision for estimated future warranty costs is recorded as cost of sales when products are shipped. The resulting accrual is reviewed regularly and periodically adjusted to reflect changes in warranty cost estimates.

 

Foreign Currency 

 

The functional currency of the Company’s foreign consolidated subsidiaries is their local currency. Assets and liabilities of its foreign subsidiaries are translated into United States dollars based on exchange rates at the end of the reporting period. Income and expense items are translated at the average exchange rates prevailing during the reporting period. For 2012, 2011, and 2010, the foreign currency translation adjustments recorded were $1.3 million, $0.4 million, and $1.5 million, respectively. These adjustments are classified in the consolidated statements of comprehensive loss.

 

Foreign currency transaction losses were $2.0 million, $0.5 million, and $0.1 million for 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively. These were classified as other income (expense) on the statement of operations.

 

In February 2013, the Venezuelan government devalued its currency. The Company does not expect this devaluation to have a material effect on its results of operations.

 

Income Taxes

 

 Until January 1, 2006, the Company and its U.S. operating subsidiaries were treated as partnerships for U.S. tax purposes. Generally, taxable income or loss, deductions and credits of the partnerships were passed through to the partners. Effective January 1, 2006, the Company elected to be taxed as a C corporation for U.S. tax purposes, and the Company and its U.S. operating subsidiaries began accounting for income taxes as a corporation.

 

The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis, operating losses and tax credit carry-forwards. The Company measures deferred tax assets and liabilities using tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The Company recognizes the effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

  

The Company also recognizes valuation allowances to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. In assessing the likelihood of realization, management considers: (i) future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences; (ii) future taxable income exclusive of reversing temporary differences and carry-forwards; (iii) taxable income in prior carry-back year(s) if carry-back is permitted under applicable tax law; and (iv) tax planning strategies.

 

Comprehensive Loss

 

All components of comprehensive loss, including the minimum pension liability adjustment and foreign currency translation adjustment, are reported in the financial statements in the period in which they are recognized. Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources.

 

Loss Per Share

 

The Company is required to present basic and diluted earnings per share. Basic loss per share is computed by dividing loss available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. For 2012, 2011, and 2010, diluted net loss per share of common stock was the same as basic net loss per share of common stock, because the effects of potentially dilutive securities are anti-dilutive.

 

At December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, 17.3 million Borrowed Shares, as defined, related to the Company’s Share Lending Agreement remained outstanding. The Company does not consider the Borrowed Shares outstanding for the purposes of computing and reporting its earnings per share.

 

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Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

 

In December 2011, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2011-12, “Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Deferral of the Effective Date for Amendments to the Presentation of Reclassifications of Items Out of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income in Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-05.” This ASU defers the changes in ASU 2011-05 that relate to the presentation of reclassification adjustments and supersedes certain pending paragraphs. ASU 2011-12 will be applied retrospectively. ASU 2011-12 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2011. This adoption has been reflected in the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

 

 In June 2011, the FASB issued ASU No. 2011-05, “Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Presentation of Comprehensive Income.” This ASU amends the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“Codification”) to allow an entity the option to present the total of comprehensive income, the components of net income, and the components of other comprehensive income either in a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two separate but consecutive statements. In both choices, an entity is required to present each component of net income along with total net income, each component of other comprehensive income along with a total for other comprehensive income, and a total amount for comprehensive income. ASU 2011-05 eliminates the option to present the components of other comprehensive income as part of the statement of changes in stockholders’ equity. The amendments to the Codification in the ASU do not change the items that must be reported in other comprehensive income or when an item of other comprehensive income must be reclassified to net income. ASU 2011-05 will be applied retrospectively. ASU 2011-05 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2011. This adoption has been reflected in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. 

 

In May 2011, the FASB issued ASU No. 2011-04, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Amendments to Achieve Common Fair Value Measurement and Disclosure Requirements in U.S. GAAP and IFRSs. The amendments in this ASU generally represent clarification of Topic 820, but also include instances where a particular principle or requirement for measuring fair value or disclosing information about fair value measurements has changed. This update results in common principles and requirements for measuring fair value and for disclosing information about fair value measurements in accordance with GAAP and IFRS. The amendments are effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2011 and are to be applied prospectively. This adoption did not have an impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

  

2. MANAGEMENT'S PLANS REGARDING FUTURE OPERATIONS

 

 Current sources of liquidity include cash on hand, cash flows from operations, funds available in its Facility Agreement (subject to certain restrictions, see Note 4 for further discussion), funds available from the Company’s Terrapin equity line agreement, interest earned from funds previously held in the Company’s contingent equity account and amounts held in its debt service reserve account. These sources of liquidity are not sufficient to meet the Company’s existing contractual obligations over the next 12 months. The Company’s financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates continuity of operations, realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business. The accompanying financial statements do not include any adjustments related to the recoverability and classification of recorded assets or the amounts and classification of liabilities that might result from the uncertainty associated with the items discussed below, except as otherwise disclosed. In order to continue as a going concern, the Company must obtain additional external financing; amend the Facility Agreement and certain other contractual obligations; and restructure the 5.75% Convertible Senior Unsecured Notes (the “5.75% Notes”). In addition, substantial uncertainties remain related to the Company’s noncompliance with certain of the Facility Agreement’s covenants (see Note 4 for further discussion) and the impact and timing of the Company’s plans to improve operating cash flows and to restructure its contractual obligations. If the resolution of these uncertainties materially and negatively impacts cash and liquidity, the Company’s ability to continue to execute its business plans will be adversely affected. 

 

Further, the Company’s longer-term business plan includes making improvements to its constellation, ground infrastructure, and releasing new products. To execute these longer-term plans successfully, the Company will need to obtain additional external financing to fund these expenditures. Although the Company is seeking this financing and is continuing to address requirements with contractors, there is no guarantee that these efforts will be successful given the scope, complexity, cost and risk of completing the construction of the space and ground components of its second-generation constellation and the development of marketable new products. Accordingly, the Company is not in a position to provide an estimate of when, or if, these longer-term plans will be completed and the effect this will have on the Company’s performance and liquidity.

  

In each of the previous three years, the Company has generated operating losses, which has adversely affected the Company's liquidity. The Company developed a plan to improve operations; complete and maintain the second-generation constellation and next-generation ground upgrades; and obtain additional financing.

 

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As further described below, the Company has taken the following steps pursuant to its plan.

 

  Reduced operating expenses by, among other things, streamlining its supply chain and other operations, consolidating its world-wide operations, including the completion of the relocation of its corporate headquarters to Covington, Louisiana, and simplifying its product offerings.

 

  Increased revenues by transitioning legacy Duplex customers to more profitable plans, commensurate with the Company’s improved service coverage, and by streamlining its Simplex and SPOT product offerings and targeting them to the consumer and enterprise markets.

 

  Successfully launched all of its second-generation satellites.

 

  Entered into a $30.0 million equity line agreement with Terrapin Opportunity L.P (“Terrapin”).

 

  Drew $60.0 million from its contingent equity account.

 

  Obtained lender agreement to defer principal payments previously due to begin in June 2012 to June 2013 on its Facility Agreement.

 

  Settled disputes with Thales Alenia Space (“Thales”) regarding prior contractual issues.

  

  Negotiated agreements with third parties to restart operations at certain existing Globalstar gateways, as well as constructing new Globalstar gateways, around the world to make coverage in areas commercially viable.

 

  Uploaded the AOCS software solution to one second-generation satellite that was previously taken out of commercial service due to the momentum wheel anomaly discussed further in Note 8. This solution is available to any satellite that is affected by a similar momentum wheel issue.

 

  Implemented sales and marketing programs designed to take advantage of the continued expansion of the Company’s Duplex coverage.

 

  Commenced a proceeding before the Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”) seeking authority to utilize the Company’s spectrum to offer terrestrial communications services separate and apart from, but coordinated with, its satellite-based communications services without fulfilling the gating requirements of the FCC’s ATC regulations.

 

The Company believes that these actions, combined with additional actions included in its operating plan, will result in improved cash flows from operations, provided the significant uncertainties described in the first two paragraphs of this footnote are successfully resolved. These additional actions include, among other things, the following:

   

  Continuing to identify and pursue opportunities to construct new gateways in areas of the world where the Company has not previously operated.

 

  Continuing to pursue numerous opportunities in the field of aviation; including next-generation “space-based” air traffic management services, in association with the Company’s technology partner, ADS-B Technologies, LLC.

 

  Completing second-generation ground infrastructure upgrades that will permit the Company to offer a new suite of consumer and enterprise products that leverage the Company’s new, inexpensive chip architecture.

   

  Continuing to control operating expenses while redirecting available resources to the marketing and sale of product offerings.

 

  Improving its key business processes and leveraging its information technology platform.

  

  Introducing new and innovative Simplex and Duplex products to the market that will further drive sales volume and revenue.

 

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3. PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT

 

Property and equipment consists of the following (in thousands):

  

   December 31, 
   2012   2011 
Globalstar System:          
Space component  $934,900   $532,487 
Ground component   49,089    49,109 
Construction in progress:          
Space component   299,209    650,920 
Ground component   84,423    80,071 
Prepaid long-lead items and other   17,920    18,028 
Total Globalstar System   1,385,541    1,330,615 
Internally developed and purchased software   14,414    14,052 
Equipment   12,800    12,333 
Land and buildings   4,003    4,152 
Leasehold improvements   1,512    1,402 
    1,418,270    1,362,554 
Accumulated depreciation and amortization   (203,114)   (144,836)
   $1,215,156   $1,217,718 

 

Amounts in the table above consist primarily of costs incurred related to the construction of the Company’s second-generation constellation, related launch services and ground upgrades. Amounts included in the Company’s construction in progress – space component balance as of December 31, 2012 consist primarily of costs related to the remaining second-generation satellites launched in February 2013. The estimated cost per satellite will be transferred out of construction in progress as each satellite is placed into commercial service.

 

Capitalized Interest and Depreciation Expense

 

The following tables summarize capitalized interest for the periods indicated below (in thousands):

 

   December 31, 
   2012   2011 
           
Total Interest Capitalized  $216,477   $176,361 

  

   Year Ended December 31, 
   2012   2011   2010 
                
Current Period Interest Capitalized  $40,116   $54,139   $47,122 

 

The following table summarizes depreciation expense for the periods indicated below (in thousands):

 

   Year Ended December 31, 
   2012   2011   2010 
                
Depreciation Expense  $67,289   $46,952   $24,435 

 

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4. LONG-TERM DEBT

 

Long-term debt consists of the following (in thousands): 

 

   December 31, 2012   December 31, 2011 
   Principal   Carrying   Principal   Carrying 
   Amount   Value   Amount   Value 
                 
Facility Agreement  $585,670   $585,670   $578,295   $578,295 
Subordinated Loan   53,499    49,822    47,384    43,255 
5.0% Convertible Senior Unsecured Notes   40,920    16,701    38,949    13,077 
8.00% Convertible Senior Unsecured Notes   48,228    28,632    47,516    25,203 
5.75% Convertible Senior Unsecured Notes   71,804    70,204    71,804    64,058 
Total Debt   800,121    751,029    783,948    723,888 
Less: Current Portion   657,474    655,874         
Long-Term Debt  $142,647   $95,155   $783,948   $723,888 

 

The table above represents the principal amount and carrying value of long-term debt at December 31, 2012 and 2011. The principal amounts shown above include payment of in kind interest, if any. The carrying value is net of any discounts to the loan amounts at issuance, as further described below, including accretion.

 

Facility Agreement

 

On June 5, 2009, the Company entered into a $586.3 million Facility Agreement with a syndicate of bank lenders, including BNP Paribas, Natixis, Société Générale, Caylon, Crédit Industriel et Commercial as arrangers and BNP Paribas as the security agent and agent for the Company’s Facility Agreement. COFACE, the French export credit agency, has provided a 95% guarantee to the lending syndicate of the Company’s obligations under the Facility Agreement.

 

The facility will mature 84 months after the first principal repayment date, as amended. Semi-annual principal repayments are scheduled to begin on June 30, 2013. The facility bears interest at a floating LIBOR rate, plus a margin of 2.07% through December 2012, increasing to 2.25% through December 2017, and 2.40% thereafter. 

 

The Company’s obligations under the facility are guaranteed on a senior secured basis by all of its domestic subsidiaries and are secured by a first priority lien on substantially all of the assets of the Company and its domestic subsidiaries (other than their FCC licenses), including patents and trademarks, 100% of the equity of the Company’s domestic subsidiaries and 65% of the equity of certain foreign subsidiaries. The Facility Agreement contains customary events of default and requires that the Company satisfy various financial and nonfinancial covenants. If the Company violates any of these covenants and is unable to obtain waivers, the Company would be in default under the agreement and payment of the indebtedness could be accelerated or prohibit the Company from utilizing the Facility Agreement until the default has been remediated.  The acceleration of the Company’s indebtedness under one agreement may permit acceleration of indebtedness under other agreements that contain cross-acceleration provisions

 

 Amounts repaid under the Facility Agreement may not be reborrowed. The Company must repay the loans (a) in full upon a change in control or (b) partially (i) if there are excess cash flows on certain dates, (ii) upon certain insurance and condemnation events and (iii) upon certain asset dispositions. The Facility Agreement includes covenants that (a) require the Company to maintain a minimum liquidity amount after the second repayment date, a minimum adjusted consolidated EBITDA, a minimum debt service coverage ratio and a maximum net debt to adjusted consolidated EBITDA ratio and (b) place limitations on the ability of the Company and its subsidiaries to incur debt, create liens, dispose of assets, carry out mergers and acquisitions, make loans, investments, distributions or other transfers and capital expenditures or enter into certain transactions with affiliates. The Company is permitted to make cash payments under the terms of its 5.75% Notes. The Facility Agreement requires the Company to fund a total of $46.8 million to the debt service reserve account. The use of the funds in this account is restricted to making principal and interest payments on the Facility Agreement. The minimum required balance, not to exceed $46.8 million, fluctuates over time based on the timing of principal and interest payment dates. As of December 31, 2012, the entire amount of $46.8 million is recorded in restricted cash. In January 2013, the agent for the Company’s Facility Agreement permitted the Company to withdraw from the debt service reserve account $8.9 million that were in excess of the required balance to pay capital expenditure costs for the fourth launch of the Company’s second-generation satellites.

  

During the second quarter of 2012, the Company received two reservation of rights letters from the agent for the Company’s Facility Agreement identifying potential existing defaults of certain non-financial covenants in the Facility Agreement that may have occurred as a result of the Thales arbitration ruling and the subsequent settlement agreements reached with Thales related to the arbitration. The letters indicated that the lenders were evaluating their position with respect to the potential defaults. During the evaluation process, the lenders did not permit funding of the remaining $3.0 million available under the Facility Agreement for the remaining milestone payments on the second-generation satellites to Thales or allow the Company to draw funds from the contingent equity account. 

 

On October 12, 2012, the Company entered into Waiver Letter No. 11, which permitted the Company to make a draw from the contingent equity account. In the waiver letter the Company acknowledged the lenders’ conclusion that events of default did occur as a result of the Company entering into settlement agreements with Thales related to the arbitration ruling. As of the date of this Report, the agent for the Company’s Facility Agreement has not notified the Company of the lenders’ intention to accelerate the debt; however, the borrowings have been shown as current on the December 31, 2012 balance sheet in accordance with applicable accounting rules. Globalstar is currently working with the lenders to seek all necessary waivers or amendments associated with existing events of default, but there can be no assurance that it will be successful. In October 2012, the lenders permitted $2.3 million of the amount available under the Facility Agreement to be used to make a milestone payment to Thales. In November and December 2012, the lenders permitted the Company to continue to withdraw funds available in the contingent equity account. The lenders currently are not permitting funding of the remaining $0.7 million available under the Facility to pay to Thales for the remaining milestone payments on the second-generations satellites to Thales.

 

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Due to the launch delays, the Company expects that it may not be in compliance with certain financial and nonfinancial covenants specified in the Facility Agreement during the next 12 months.  If the Company cannot obtain either a waiver or an amendment, the failure to comply with these covenants would represent an additional event of default.

 

Contingent Equity Agreement

 

On June 19, 2009, the Company entered into a Contingent Equity Agreement with Thermo whereby Thermo agreed to deposit $60.0 million into a contingent equity account to fulfill a condition precedent for borrowing under the Facility Agreement. Under the terms of the Facility Agreement, the Company has the right to make draws from this account if and to the extent it has an actual or projected deficiency in its ability to meet obligations due within a forward-looking 90-day period. Thermo has pledged the contingent equity account to secure the Company’s obligations under the Facility Agreement.

 

 The Contingent Equity Agreement provides that the Company will pay Thermo an availability fee of 10% per year for maintaining funds in the contingent equity account. This annual fee is payable solely in warrants to purchase common stock at $0.01 per share with a five-year exercise period from issuance. The number of shares issuable under the warrants is calculated by taking the outstanding funds available in the contingent equity account multiplied by 10% divided by the lower of the Company’s common stock price on the issuance date or $1.37, but not to be lower than $0.20. Prior to June 19, 2012, the common stock price is subject to a reset provision on certain valuation dates subsequent to issuance whereby the warrant price used in the calculation will be the lower of the warrant price on the issuance date or the Company’s common stock price on the valuation date. The Company determined that the warrants issued in conjunction with the availability fee were derivatives and recorded the value of the derivatives as a component of other non-current liabilities, at issuance. The offset was recorded in other assets and was amortized over the one year availability period. The warrants issued on June 19, 2012 are not subject to a reset provision subsequent to issuance and are therefore not considered a derivative instrument. The value of the warrants issued was recorded as equity and the offset was recorded in other assets and is being amortized over the one-year availability period.

 

When the Company makes draws on the contingent equity account, it issues Thermo shares of common stock calculated using a price per share equal to 80% of the average closing price of the common stock for the 15 trading days immediately preceding the draw. The 20% discount on the value of the shares issued to Thermo is treated as a deferred financing cost and is amortized over the remaining term of the Facility Agreement. The Company drew the entire $60.0 million from this account as of December 31, 2012. Approximately $1.1 million of interest earned from the funds previously held in this account was available to the Company at December 31, 2012.

 

The following table summarizes as of December 31, 2012 the balance of and the draws on the contingent equity account (dollars in thousands) and the related warrants and shares issued to Thermo since origination of the agreement:

 

   Available       Warrants   Shares 
   Amount   Draws   Issued   Issued 
June 19, 2009 (1)  $60,000   $    4,379,562     
December 31, 2009 (2)   60,000        2,516,990     
June 19, 2010 (1)   60,000        4,379,562     
June 19, 2011 (2)   60,000        620,438     
June 19, 2011 (1)   60,000        5,000,000     
November 4, 2011 (3)   54,600    5,400        11,376,404 
November 30, 2011 (3)   45,800    8,800        25,229,358 
January 11, 2012 (3)   36,000    9,800        22,546,012 
March 23, 2012 (3)   27,300    8,700        14,135,615 
May 30, 2012 (3)   22,800    4,500        14,204,545 
June 19, 2012 (2)   22,800        16,428,571     
June 19, 2012 (1), (4)   22,800        8,142,857     
October 15, 2012 (3)   15,500    7,300        20,338,039 
November 23, 2012 (3)   8,525    6,975        25,141,538 
December 31, 2012 (3)       8,525        27,944,712 
December 31, 2012  $   $60,000    41,467,980    160,916,223 

  

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  (1) Warrants to purchase common stock were issued to Thermo for the annual availability fee pursuant to the terms of the Contingent Equity Agreement.
  (2) Additional warrants were issued to Thermo due to the reset provisions in the Contingent Equity Agreement.
  (3) Shares of common stock were issued to Thermo resulting from the Company’s draws on the contingent equity account pursuant to the terms of the Contingent Equity Agreement.
  (4) Warrants issued on June 19, 2012 are not subject to the reset provisions in the Contingent Equity Agreement.

 

On June 19, 2010, the warrants issued on June 19, 2009 and on December 31, 2009 were no longer variable, and the related $11.9 million liability was reclassified to equity.  On June 19, 2011, the warrants issued on June 19, 2010 were no longer variable, and the related $6.0 million liability was reclassified to equity. On June 19, 2012, the warrants issued on June 19, 2011 were no longer variable, and the related $5.9 million liability was reclassified to equity.

 

As of December 31, 2012, no warrants issued in connection with the Contingent Equity Agreement had been exercised.

 

No voting common stock is issuable if it would cause Thermo and its affiliates to own more than 70% of the Company’s outstanding voting stock. The Company may issue nonvoting common stock in lieu of common stock to the extent issuing common stock would cause Thermo and its affiliates to exceed this 70% ownership level.

 

Subordinated Loan

 

On June 25, 2009, the Company entered into a Loan Agreement with Thermo whereby Thermo agreed to lend the Company $25 million for the purpose of funding the debt service reserve account required under the Facility Agreement. This loan is subordinated to, and the debt service reserve account is pledged to secure, all of the Company’s obligations under the Facility Agreement.  Amounts deposited in the debt service reserve account are restricted to payments due under the Facility Agreement, unless otherwise authorized by the lender.

 

The loan accrues interest at 12% per annum, which is capitalized and added to the outstanding principal in lieu of cash payments. The Company will make payments to Thermo only when permitted under the Facility Agreement. The loan becomes due and payable six months after the obligations under the Facility Agreement have been paid in full, the Company has a change in control or any acceleration of the maturity of the loans under the Facility Agreement occurs. As additional consideration for the loan, the Company issued Thermo a warrant to purchase 4,205,608 shares of common stock at $0.01 per share with a five-year exercise period. No voting common stock is issuable upon such exercise if such issuance would cause Thermo and its affiliates to own more than 70% of the Company’s outstanding voting stock. The Company may issue nonvoting common stock in lieu of common stock to the extent issuing common stock would cause Thermo and its affiliates to exceed this 70% ownership level.

 

 The Company determined that the warrant was an equity instrument and recorded it as a part of stockholders’ equity with a corresponding debt discount of $5.2 million, which is netted against the principal amount of the loan. The Company is accreting the debt discount associated with the warrant to interest expense over the term of the loan agreement using an effective interest method. As of December 31, 2012, the remaining debt discount was $3.7 million, and $16.0 million of interest was outstanding; these are included in long-term debt on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet.

  

5.00% Convertible Senior Notes

 

In June 2011, the Company issued $38.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the 5.0% Convertible Senior Unsecured Notes (the “5.0% Notes”) and warrants (the “5.0% Warrants”) to purchase 15,200,000 shares of voting common stock of the Company at an exercise price of $1.25 per share. The 5.0% Notes are convertible into shares of common stock at an initial conversion price of $1.25 per share of common stock, or 800 shares of the Company’s common stock per $1,000 principal amount of the 5.0% Notes, subject to adjustment in the manner set forth in the Indenture. The 5.0% Notes are guaranteed on a subordinated basis by substantially all of the Company’s domestic subsidiaries, on an unconditional joint and several basis, pursuant to a Guaranty Agreement. The 5.0% Warrants are exercisable until five years after their issuance. The 5.0% Notes and 5.0% Warrants have anti-dilution protection in the event of certain stock splits or extraordinary share distributions, and a reset of the conversion and exercise price on April 15, 2013 if the Company’s common stock is below the initial conversion and exercise price at that time.

 

The 5.0% Notes are senior unsecured debt obligations of the Company and rank pari passu with the Company’s existing 5.75% and 8.00% Convertible Senior Notes and are subordinated to the Company’s obligations pursuant to its Facility Agreement. There is no sinking fund for the 5.0% Notes. The 5.0% Notes will mature at the earlier to occur of (i) December 14, 2021, or (ii) six months following the maturity date of the Facility Agreement and bear interest at a rate of 5.0% per annum. Interest on the Notes will be payable in-kind semi-annually in arrears on June 15 and December 15 of each year. Under certain circumstances, interest on the 5.0% Notes will be payable in cash at the election of the holder if such payments are permitted under the Facility Agreement.

 

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Subject to certain exceptions set forth in the Indenture, the 5.0% Notes will be subject to repurchase for cash at the option of the holders of all or any portion of the 5.0% Notes upon a fundamental change at a purchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 5.0% Notes, plus a make-whole payment and accrued and unpaid interest, if any. A fundamental change will occur upon certain changes in the ownership of the Company or certain events relating to the trading of the common stock.

  

Holders may convert their 5.0% Notes into voting common stock at their option at any time. Upon conversion of the 5.0% Notes, the Company will pay the holders of the 5.0% Notes a make-whole premium by increasing the number of shares of common stock delivered upon such conversion. The number of additional shares constituting the make-whole premium per $1,000 principal amount of 5.0% Notes will equal the quotient of (i) the aggregate principal amount of the Securities so converted multiplied by 25.00%, less the aggregate interest paid on such Securities prior to the applicable Conversion Date divided by (ii) 95% of the volume-weighted average Closing Price of the Common Stock for the 10 trading days immediately preceding the conversion date.

 

No 5.0% Notes have been converted and no 5.0% Warrants have been exercised since their initial issuance in 2011.

 

The Indenture contains customary financial reporting requirements and also contains restrictions on the issuance of additional indebtedness, liens, loans and investments, dividends and other restricted payments, mergers, asset sales, certain transactions with affiliates and layering of debt. The Indenture also provides that upon certain events of default, including without limitation failure to pay principal or interest, failure to deliver a notice of fundamental change, as defined, failure to convert the 5.0% Notes when required, defaults under other material indebtedness and failure to pay material judgments, either the trustee or the holders of 20% in aggregate principal amount of the 5.0% Notes may declare the principal of the 5.0% Notes and any accrued and unpaid interest through the date of such declaration immediately due and payable. In the case of certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency relating to the Company or its significant subsidiaries, the principal amount of the 5.0% Notes and accrued interest automatically will become due and payable. The Company was in compliance with the terms of the Indenture as of December 31, 2012.

 

The Company evaluated the various embedded derivatives resulting from the conversion rights and features within the Indenture for bifurcation from the 5.0% Notes.  Due to the provisions and reset features in the 5.0% Warrants, the Company recorded the 5.0% Warrants as equity with a corresponding debt discount which is netted against the face value of the 5.0% Notes. The Company is accreting the debt discount associated with the 5.0% Warrants to interest expense over the term of the 5.0% Warrants using the effective interest rate method. The Company determined the relative fair value of the 5.0% Warrants using a Monte Carlo simulation model based upon a risk-neutral stock price model.

 

The Company evaluated the embedded derivative resulting from the contingent put feature within the Indenture for bifurcation from the 5.0% Notes. The contingent put feature was not deemed clearly and closely related to the 5.0% Notes and had to be bifurcated as a standalone derivative. The Company recorded this embedded derivative liability as a non-current liability on its consolidated balance sheet with a corresponding debt discount which is netted against the principal amount of the 5.0% Notes.

 

The Company evaluated the conversion option within the convertible notes to determine whether the conversion price was beneficial to the note holders. The Company recorded a beneficial conversion feature (“BCF”) related to the issuance of the 5.0% Notes.  The BCF for the 5.0% Notes is recognized and measured by allocating a portion of the proceeds to beneficial conversion feature, based on relative fair value, and as a reduction to the carrying amount of the convertible instrument equal to the intrinsic value of the conversion feature. The Company is accreting the discount recorded in connection with the BCF valuation as interest expense over the term of the 5.0% Notes, using the effective interest rate method.

 

The Company netted the debt discount associated with the 5.0% Warrants, the beneficial conversion feature, and the contingent put feature against the face value of the 5.0% Notes to determine the carrying amount of the 5.0% Notes. The accretion of debt discount will increase the carrying amount of the debt over the term of the 5.0% Notes. The Company allocated the proceeds at issuance as follows (in thousands): 

 

Debt  $11,316 
Fair value of 5.0% Warrants   8,081 
Beneficial Conversion Feature   17,100 
Contingent Put Feature   1,503 
Face Value of 5.0% Notes  $38,000 

 

8.00% Convertible Senior Unsecured Notes

 

On June 19, 2009, the Company sold $55.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 8.00% Convertible Senior Unsecured Notes (the “8.00% Notes”) and Warrants (the “8.00% Warrants”) to purchase 15.3 million shares of the Company’s common stock. The 8.00% Notes are subordinated to all of the Company’s obligations under the Facility Agreement. The 8.00% Notes are the Company’s senior unsecured debt obligations and, except as described in the preceding sentence, rank pari passu with its existing unsecured, unsubordinated obligations, including its 5.75% Notes and 5.0% Notes. The 8.00% Notes mature at the later of the tenth anniversary of closing (June 19, 2019) or six months following the maturity date of the Facility Agreement and bear interest at a rate of 8.00% per annum. Interest on the 8.00% Notes is payable in the form of additional 8.00% Notes or, subject to certain restrictions, in common stock at the option of the holder. Interest is payable semi-annually in arrears on June 15 and December 15 of each year.

 

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The 8.00% Warrants have full ratchet anti-dilution protection and the exercise price of the Warrants is subject to adjustment under certain other circumstances. In the event of certain transactions that involve a change of control, the holders of the 8.00% Warrants have the right to make the Company purchase the Warrants for cash, subject to certain conditions. The exercise period for the 8.00% Warrants began on December 19, 2009 and will end on June 19, 2014.  

 

Holders may convert their 8.00% Notes at any time. If the Company issues or sells shares of its common stock at a price per share less than the base conversion price on the trading day immediately preceding such issuance or sale subject to certain limitations, the base conversion rate will be adjusted lower based on a formula described in the supplemental indenture governing the 8.00% Notes. However, no adjustment to the base conversion rate shall be made if it would cause the Base Conversion Price to be less than $1.00. No adjustment to the Base Conversion Rate will be required unless the adjustment would require an increase or decrease of at least 1% of the Base Conversion Rate. If the adjustment is not made because the adjustment does not change the Base Conversion Rate by at least 1%, then the adjustment that is not made will be carried forward and taken into account in any future adjustment. All required calculations will be made to the nearest cent of 1/1,000th of a share, as the case may be. Notwithstanding the foregoing, (i) upon any conversion of 8.00% Notes (solely with respect to 8.00% Notes to be converted), (ii) on every one year anniversary from the Issue Date of the 8.00% Notes and (iii) on the Stated Maturity for the payment of principal of the 8.00% Notes, the Company will give effect to all adjustments that have otherwise been deferred, and those adjustments will no longer be carried forward and taken into account in any future adjustment. If at any time the closing price of the common stock exceeds 200% of the conversion price of the 8.00% Notes then in effect for 30 consecutive trading days, all of the outstanding 8.00% Notes will be automatically converted into common stock. Upon certain automatic and optional conversions of the 8.00% Notes, the Company will pay holders of the 8.00% Notes a make-whole premium by increasing the number of shares of common stock delivered upon such conversion. The number of additional shares per $1,000 principal amount of 8.00% Notes constituting the make-whole premium shall be equal to the quotient of (i) the aggregate principal amount of the 8.00% Notes so converted multiplied by 32.00%, less the aggregate interest paid on such Securities prior to the applicable Conversion Date divided by (ii) 95% of the volume-weighted average Closing Price of the common stock for the 10 trading days immediately preceding the Conversion Date.

 

The current exercise price of the 8.00% Warrants is $0.32 and the base conversion price of the 8.00% Notes is $1.59. 

 

As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, approximately $17.6 million and $15.6 million of the 8.00% Notes had been converted resulting in the issuance of approximately 16.1 million and 14.2 million shares of common stock, respectively.

 

Subject to certain exceptions set forth in the supplemental indenture, if certain changes of control of the Company or events relating to the listing of the common stock occur (a “fundamental change”), the 8.00% Notes are subject to repurchase for cash at the option of the holders of all or any portion of the 8.00% Notes at a purchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 8.00% Notes, plus a make-whole payment and accrued and unpaid interest, if any. Holders that require the Company to repurchase 8.00% Notes upon a fundamental change may elect to receive shares of common stock in lieu of cash. Such holders will receive a number of shares equal to (i) the number of shares they would have been entitled to receive upon conversion of the 8.00% Notes, plus (ii) a make-whole premium of 12% or 15%, depending on the date of the fundamental change and the amount of the consideration, if any, received by the Company’s stockholders in connection with the fundamental change.

 

The indenture governing the 8.00% Notes contains customary financial reporting requirements. The indenture also provides that upon certain events of default, including without limitation failure to pay principal or interest, failure to deliver a notice of fundamental change, failure to convert the 8.00% Notes when required, acceleration of other material indebtedness and failure to pay material judgments, either the trustee or the holders of 25% in aggregate principal amount of the 8.00% Notes may declare the principal of the 8.00% Notes and any accrued and unpaid interest through the date of such declaration immediately due and payable. In the case of certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency relating to the Company or its significant subsidiaries, the principal amount of the 8.00% Notes and accrued interest automatically becomes due and payable. The Company was not in default under the 8.00% Notes as of December 31, 2012.

 

The Company evaluated the various embedded derivatives resulting from the conversion rights and features within the Indenture for bifurcation from the 8.00% Notes. The conversion rights and features could not be excluded from bifurcation as a result of being clearly and closely related to the 8.00% Notes or were not indexed to the Company’s common stock and could not be classified in stockholders’ equity if freestanding. The Company recorded this compound embedded derivative liability as a component of other non-current liabilities on its consolidated balance sheets with a corresponding debt discount which is netted against the face value of the 8.00% Notes. 

 

The Company is accreting the debt discount associated with the compound embedded derivative liability to interest expense over the term of the 8.00% Notes using an effective interest rate method. The fair value of the compound embedded derivative liability is being marked-to-market at the end of each reporting period, with any changes in value reported in the consolidated statements of operations. The Company determined the fair value of the compound embedded derivative using a Monte Carlo simulation model.

 

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Due to the cash settlement provisions and reset features in the 8.00% Warrants, the Company recorded the 8.00% Warrants as a component of other non-current liabilities on its consolidated balance sheet with a corresponding debt discount which is netted with the face value of the 8.00% Notes. The Company is accreting the debt discount associated with the 8.00% Warrants liability to interest expense over the term of the 8.00% Notes using an effective interest rate method. The fair value of the 8.00% Warrants liability is being marked-to-market at the end of each reporting period, with any changes in value reported in the consolidated statements of operations. The Company determined the fair value of the 8.00% Warrants derivative using a Monte Carlo simulation model.

 

The Company allocated the proceeds received from the 8.00% Notes among the conversion rights and features, the detachable 8.00% Warrants and the remainder to the underlying debt. The Company netted the debt discount associated with the conversion rights and features and 8.00% Warrants against the face value of the 8.00% Notes to determine the carrying amount of the 8.00% Notes. The accretion of debt discount will increase the carrying amount of the debt over the term of the 8.00% Notes. The Company allocated the proceeds at issuance as follows (in thousands): 

 

Fair value of compound embedded derivative  $23,542 
Fair value of Warrants   12,791 
Debt   18,667 
Face Value of 8.00% Notes  $55,000 

 

5.75% Convertible Senior Unsecured Notes

 

The Company issued $150.0 million aggregate principal amount of 5.75% Notes pursuant to a Base Indenture and a Supplemental Indenture each dated as of April 15, 2008. The 5.75% Notes are senior unsecured debt obligations of the Company. The 5.75% Notes mature on April 1, 2028 and bear interest at a rate of 5.75% per annum. Interest on the 5.75% Notes is payable semi-annually in arrears on April 1 and October 1 of each year.

 

Subject to certain exceptions set forth in the Indenture, the 5.75% Notes are subject to repurchase for cash at the option of the holders of all or any portion of the 5.75% Notes (i) on each of April 1, 2013, April 1, 2018 and April 1, 2023 or (ii) upon a fundamental change, both at a purchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 5.75% Notes, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. A fundamental change will occur upon certain changes in the ownership of the Company, or certain events relating to the trading of the Company’s common stock.

 

Holders may convert their 5.75% Notes into shares of common stock at their option at any time prior to maturity, subject to the Company’s option to deliver cash in lieu of all or a portion of the shares. The 5.75% Notes are convertible at an initial conversion rate of 166.1 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of 5.75% Notes (equal to $6.02 per share), subject to adjustment.

 

In 2008, $36.0 million aggregate principal amount of 5.75% Notes, or 24% of the 5.75% Notes originally issued, were converted into common stock. The Company also exchanged an additional $42.2 million aggregate principal amount of 5.75% Notes, or 28% of the 5.75% Notes originally issued for a combination of common stock and cash. The Company has issued approximately 23.6 million shares of its common stock and paid a nominal amount of cash for fractional shares in connection with the conversions and exchanges. In addition, the holders whose 5.75% Notes were converted or exchanged received an early conversion make whole amount of approximately $9.3 million representing the next five semi-annual interest payments that would have become due on the converted 5.75% Notes, which was paid from funds in an escrow account maintained for the benefit of the holders of 5.75% Notes. In the exchanges, 5.75% Note holders received additional consideration in the form of cash payments or additional shares of the Company’s common stock in the amount of approximately $1.1 million to induce exchanges. After these transactions, approximately $71.8 million aggregate principal amount of 5.75% Notes remain outstanding at December 31, 2012 and 2011. As of December 31, 2012, the carrying value of the 5.75% Notes is classified as a current debt obligation on the Company's consolidated balance sheet because the first put option will occur within the next 12 months.

 

Holders who convert their 5.75% Notes in connection with certain events occurring on or prior to April 1, 2013 constituting a “make whole fundamental change” (as defined in the Supplemental Indentures) will be entitled to an increase in the conversion rate as specified in the indenture governing the 5.75% Notes. The number of additional shares by which the applicable base conversion rate will be increased will be determined pursuant to the agreement and is based on the date on which the make whole fundamental change becomes effective (the effective date) and the price (the stock price) paid, or deemed paid, per share of the Company’s common stock in the make whole fundamental change, subject to adjustment. If the holders of common stock receive only cash in a make whole fundamental change, the stock price will be the cash amount paid per share of the Company’s common stock. Otherwise, the stock price will be the average of the closing sale prices of the Company’s common stock for each of the 10 consecutive trading days prior to, but excluding, the relevant effective date.

   

Notwithstanding the make whole premium pursuant to the agreement, the base conversion rate will not exceed 241.0 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of 5.75% Notes, subject to adjustment in the same manner as the base conversion rate.

 

Except as described above with respect to holders of 5.75% Notes who convert their 5.75% Notes prior to April 1, 2013, there is no circumstance in which holders could receive cash in addition to the maximum number of shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of the 5.75% Notes.

 

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If the Company makes at least 10 scheduled semi-annual interest payments, the 5.75% Notes are subject to redemption at the Company’s option at any time on or after April 1, 2013, at a price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 5.75% Notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. 

 

The indenture governing the 5.75% Notes contains customary financial reporting requirements and also contains restrictions on mergers and asset sales. The indenture also provides that upon certain events of default, including without limitation failure to pay principal or interest, failure to deliver a notice of fundamental change, failure to convert the 5.75% Notes when required, acceleration of other material indebtedness and failure to pay material judgments, either the trustee or the holders of 25% in aggregate principal amount of the 5.75% Notes may declare the principal of the 5.75% Notes and any accrued and unpaid interest through the date of such declaration immediately due and payable. In the case of certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency relating to the Company or its significant subsidiaries, the principal amount of the 5.75% Notes and accrued interest automatically becomes due and payable. The Company was not in default under the 5.75% Notes as of December 31, 2012.

 

On March 4, 2013 the Company filed a tender offer statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission and mailed a notice to the holders of the 5.75% Notes as required by the Indenture and First Supplemental Indenture, between the Company and the trustee for the Company’s 5.75% Notes advising the holders of their right to sell their 5.75% Notes to the Company for cash equal to their principal amount on April 1, 2013. The Company lacks sufficient liquidity to purchase the 5.75% Notes as described in Note 2 and is seeking additional capital or alternative arrangements to avoid an event of default through failing to purchase the 5.75% Notes that are tendered.

 

Share Lending Agreement

 

Concurrently with the offering of the 5.75% Notes, the Company entered into a share lending agreement (the “Share Lending Agreement”) with Merrill Lynch International (the “Borrower”), pursuant to which the Company agreed to lend up to 36,144,570 shares of common stock (the “Borrowed Shares”) to the Borrower, subject to certain adjustments, for a period ending on the earliest of (i) at the Company’s option, at any time after the entire principal amount of the 5.75% Notes ceases to be outstanding, (ii) the written agreement of the Company and the Borrower to terminate, (iii) the occurrence of a Borrower default, at the option of Lender, and (iv) the occurrence of a Lender default, at the option of the Borrower. Pursuant to the Share Lending Agreement, upon the termination of the share loan, the Borrower must return the Borrowed Shares to the Company. Upon the conversion of 5.75% Notes (in whole or in part), a number of Borrowed Shares proportional to the conversion rate for such notes must be returned to the Company. At the Company’s election, the Borrower may deliver cash equal to the market value of the corresponding Borrowed Shares instead of returning to the Company the Borrowed Shares otherwise required by conversions of 5.75% Notes.

  

Pursuant to and upon the terms of the Share Lending Agreement, the Company will issue and lend the Borrowed Shares to the Borrower as a share loan. The Borrowing Agent also is acting as an underwriter with respect to the Borrowed Shares, which are being offered to the public. The Borrowed Shares included approximately 32.0 million shares of common stock initially loaned by the Company to the Borrower on separate occasions, delivered pursuant to the Share Lending Agreement and the Underwriting Agreement, and an additional 4.1 million shares of common stock that, from time to time, may be borrowed from the Company by the Borrower pursuant to the Share Lending Agreement and the Underwriting Agreement and subsequently offered and sold at prevailing market prices at the time of sale or negotiated prices. The Borrowed Shares are free trading shares. At December 31, 2012 and 2011, approximately 17.3 million Borrowed Shares remained outstanding. As of December 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, the unamortized amount of issuance costs associated with the Share Lending Agreement was $0.4 million and $2.3 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2012, the unamortized issuance costs are classified as a current asset on the Company's consolidated balance sheet, which is consistent with the classification of the related 5.75% Notes as a current debt obligation, as further discussed above.

 

The Company did not receive any proceeds from the sale of the Borrowed Shares pursuant to the Share Lending Agreement, and it will not receive any proceeds from any future sale. The Borrower has received all of the proceeds from the sale of Borrowed Shares pursuant to the Share Lending Agreement and will receive all of the proceeds from any future sale.

 

The Borrowed Shares are treated as issued and outstanding for corporate law purposes, and accordingly, the holders of the Borrowed Shares will have all of the rights of a holder of the Company’s outstanding shares, including the right to vote the shares on all matters submitted to a vote of the Company’s stockholders and the right to receive any dividends or other distributions that the Company may pay or makes on its outstanding shares of common stock. However, under the Share Lending Agreement, the Borrower has agreed:

 

  To pay, within one business day after the relevant payment date, to the Company an amount equal to any cash dividends that the Company pays on the Borrowed Shares; and

 

  To pay or deliver to the Company, upon termination of the loan of Borrowed Shares, any other distribution, in liquidation or otherwise, that the Company makes on the Borrowed Shares.

 

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To the extent the Borrowed Shares the Company initially lent under the share lending agreement and offered in the common stock offering have not been sold or returned to it, the Borrower has agreed that it will not vote any such Borrowed Shares. The Borrower has also agreed under the Share Lending Agreement that it will not transfer or dispose of any Borrowed Shares, other than to its affiliates, unless the transfer or disposition is pursuant to a registration statement that is effective under the Securities Act. However, investors that purchase the shares from the Borrower (and any subsequent transferees of such purchasers) will be entitled to the same voting rights with respect to those shares as any other holder of the Company’s common stock.

 

On December 18, 2008, the Company entered into Amendment No. 1 to the Share Lending Agreement with the Borrower and the Borrowing Agent. Pursuant to Amendment No.1, the Company has the option to request the Borrower to deliver cash instead of returning Borrowed Shares upon any termination of loans at the Borrower’s option, at the termination date of the Share Lending Agreement or when the outstanding loaned shares exceed the maximum number of shares permitted under the Share Lending Agreement. The consent of the Borrower is required for any cash settlement, which consent may not be unreasonably withheld, subject to the Borrower’s determination of applicable legal, regulatory or self-regulatory requirements or other internal policies. Any loans settled in shares of Company common stock will be subject to a return fee based on the stock price as agreed by the Company and the Borrower. The return fee will not be less than $0.005 per share or exceed $0.05 per share.

 

The Company evaluated the various embedded derivatives within the Indenture for bifurcation from the 5.75% Notes. These embedded derivatives were either (i) excluded from bifurcation as a result of being clearly and closely related to the 5.75% Notes or are indexed to the Company’s common stock and would be classified in stockholders’ equity if freestanding or (ii) the fair value of the embedded derivatives was estimated to be immaterial.

 

Terrapin Opportunity, L.P. Common Stock Purchase Agreement

 

On December 28, 2012 the Company entered into a Common Stock Purchase Agreement with Terrapin Opportunity, L.P. ("Terrapin") pursuant to which the Company may, subject to certain conditions, require Terrapin to purchase up to $30.0 million of shares of Globalstar voting common stock over the 24-month term following the effectiveness of a resale registration statement. This type of arrangement is sometimes referred to as a committed equity line financing facility. From time to time over the 24-month term, and in the Company’s sole discretion, the Company may present Terrapin with up to 36 draw down notices requiring Terrapin to purchase a specified dollar amount of shares of Globalstar voting common stock, based on the price per share per day over 10 consecutive trading days (a "Draw Down Period"). The per share purchase price for these shares equals the daily volume weighted average price of Globalstar common stock on each date during the Draw Down Period on which shares are purchased, less a discount ranging from 3.5% to 8.0% based on a minimum price that the Company solely specifies. In addition, in the Company’s sole discretion, but subject to certain limitations, the Company may require Terrapin to purchase a percentage of the daily trading volume of its common stock for each trading day during the Draw Down Period. In addition, the Company will not sell a number of shares of voting common stock which, when aggregated with all other shares of voting common stock then beneficially owned by Terrapin and its affiliates, would result in the beneficial ownership by Terrapin or any of its affiliates of more than 9.9% of the then issued and outstanding shares of voting common stock.

 

When the Company makes a draw under the Terrapin equity line agreement, it will issue Terrapin shares of common stock calculated using a price per share as specified in the agreement. As of December 31, 2012, the Company had not required Terrapin to purchase any shares of common stock.

 

Warrants Outstanding

 

As a result of the Company’s borrowings described above, as of December 31, 2012 and 2011 there were warrants outstanding to purchase 122.5 million shares and 76.8 million shares, respectively, of the Company’s voting common stock as shown in the table below: 

 

   Outstanding Warrants
December 31,
   Strike Price 
December 31,
 
   2012   2011   2012   2011 
Contingent Equity Agreement (1)   41,467,980    16,896,552   $0.01   $0.01 
Subordinated Loan   4,205,608    4,205,608    0.01    0.01 
5.0% Notes (2)   15,200,000    15,200,000    1.25    1.25 
8.00% Notes (3)   61,606,706    40,486,794    0.32    0.49 
    122,480,294    76,788,954           

 

  (1) On certain valuation dates, additional warrants were issued due to reset provisions in the agreement.
  (2) Subject to reset on April 15, 2013, if the Company’s common stock is below the initial conversion and exercise price.
  (3) According to the terms of the 8.00% Notes, additional 8.00% Warrants may be issued to holders if shares of common stock are issued below the then current warrant reset price ($0.32 as of December 31, 2012). During the second quarter of 2012, the Company issued stock at $0.32 per share, which was below the previous strike price of $0.49, in connection with the contingent consideration paid as part of the acquisition of Axonn LLC (“Axonn”). Given this transaction and the related provisions in the warrant agreements, the holders of the 8.00% Warrants received additional 8.00% Warrants to purchase 21.7 million more shares of common stock. No additional warrants were issued during the third or fourth quarter of 2012.

  

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Maturities of long-term debt 

 

Annual maturities of long-term debt for each of the five years following December 31, 2012 and thereafter are as follows (in thousands):

 

2013  $657,474 
2014    
2015    
2016    
2017    
Thereafter   142,647 
Total  $800,121 

 

Amounts in the above table are calculated based on current amounts outstanding at December 31, 2012.

 

The 5.75% Notes are subject to repurchase by the Company at the option of the holders on April 1, 2013. As of December 31, 2012 the estimated notional purchase price of the 5.75% Notes was $71.8 million, which the Company has included in 2013 maturities in the table above. 

 

The Company was not in compliance with certain financial and nonfinancial covenants under the Facility Agreement as of December 31, 2012. As of the date of this Report, the agen