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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549 

FORM 10-K

(Mark One) 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2022
OR 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Transition Period from to  

Commission File Number 001-33117

 GLOBALSTAR, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter) 
Delaware 41-2116508
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 

1351 Holiday Square Blvd.
Covington, Louisiana 70433
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) 

Registrant's Telephone Number, Including Area Code (985) 335-1500 
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per shareGSATNYSE American
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act:
None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes No

 Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes No

 Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act)
Yes No
 
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of
incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

The aggregate market value of the registrant's common stock held by non-affiliates at June 30, 2022, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $0.8 billion. 
 
As of February 24, 2023, 1,811 million shares of voting common stock were outstanding, 0.1 million shares of preferred stock were outstanding, and no shares of nonvoting common stock were authorized or outstanding. Unless the context otherwise requires, references to common stock in this Report mean the Registrant's voting common stock.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 
Portions of the Registrant's Proxy Statement for the 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Report.



FORM 10-K
 
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2022
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
  Page
 PART I
Item 1.Business
Item 1A.Risk Factors
Item 1B.Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2.Properties
Item 3.Legal Proceedings
Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures
 PART II
Item 5.Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6.[Reserved]
Item 7.Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A.Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8.Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9.Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A.Controls and Procedures
Item 9B.Other Information
Item 9C.Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections
 PART III
Item 10.Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11.Executive Compensation
Item 12.Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13.Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14.Principal Accountant Fees and Services
 PART IV
Item 15.Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16.Form 10-K Summary
Signatures 
 

2


PART I
 
Forward-Looking Statements 
 
Certain statements contained in or incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K (the "Report"), other than purely historical information, including, but not limited to, estimates, projections, statements relating to our business plans, objectives and expected operating results, and the assumptions upon which those statements are based, are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements generally are identified by the words "believe," "project," "expect," "anticipate," "estimate," "intend," "strategy," "plan," "may," "should," "will," "would," "will be," "will continue," "will likely result," and similar expressions, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties which may cause actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements, such as the statements regarding our ability to develop and expand our business (including our ability to monetize our spectrum rights), our anticipated capital spending, our ability to manage costs, our ability to exploit and respond to technological innovation, the effects of laws and regulations (including tax laws and regulations) and legal and regulatory changes (including regulation related to the use of our spectrum), the opportunities for strategic business combinations and the effects of consolidation in our industry on us and our competitors, our anticipated future revenues, our anticipated financial resources, our expectations about the future operational performance of our satellites (including their projected operational lives), our expectations for future increases in our revenue and profitability, our performance and financial results under the Service Agreements, the expected strength of and growth prospects for our existing customers and the markets that we serve, commercial acceptance of new products, problems relating to the ground-based facilities operated by us or by independent gateway operators, worldwide economic, geopolitical and business conditions and risks associated with doing business on a global basis, business interruptions due to natural disasters, unexpected events or public health crises, including viral pandemics such as the COVID-19 coronavirus, and other statements contained in this Report regarding matters that are not historical facts, involve predictions. Risks and uncertainties that could cause or contribute to such differences include, without limitation, those in Item 1A. Risk Factors of this Report. We do not intend, and undertake no obligation, to update any of our forward-looking statements after the date of this Report to reflect actual results or future events or circumstances.

Item 1. Business
 
Mobile Satellite Services Business

Globalstar, Inc. (“we,” “us” or the “Company”) provides Mobile Satellite Services (“MSS”) including voice and data communications services in addition to wholesale capacity services through its global satellite network. We offer these services over our network of in-orbit satellites and our active ground stations (“gateways”), which we refer to collectively as the Globalstar System. In addition to supporting Internet of Things ("IoT") data transmissions in a variety of applications, we provide reliable connectivity in areas not served or underserved by terrestrial wireless and wireline networks and in circumstances where terrestrial networks are not operational due to natural or man-made disasters. By providing wireless communications services across the globe, we meet our customers' increasing desire for connectivity.

Business Strategy

Our competitive advantages are leveraged through a strategy that relies primarily on four pillars to drive increasing shareholder value: wholesale satellite capacity, terrestrial spectrum, IoT and legacy services. The four pillars are outlined below.

Wholesale Satellite Capacity

Wholesale satellite capacity services include satellite network access and related services using our satellite spectrum and network of satellites and gateways.

In September 2022, Apple Inc. (“Partner”) announced new satellite-enabled services for certain of its products (the “Services”). We are the satellite operator for the Services pursuant to the agreement (the “Service Agreement”) and certain related ancillary agreements (such agreements, together with the Service Agreement, as each is amended from time to time, the “Service Agreements”). The Services constitute the service which was previously described and disclosed as the Terms Agreement.

Since execution of the Service Agreements in 2020 and prior to the commencement of the Services in 2022, the parties completed several milestones, including (i) a feasibility phase, (ii) material upgrades to our ground network, (iii) construction of 10 new gateways around the world, (iv) the successful launch of the ground spare satellite, and (v) rigorous in-field system
3


testing. The Service Agreements generally require us to allocate network capacity to support the Services, and Partner to enable Band 53/n53 for use in cellular-enabled devices designated by Partner for use with the Services.

Partner made the Services available to its customers beginning in November 2022 (the “Service Launch”). In consideration for the Services provided by us, Partner will make payments to us under the Service Agreements, such as a recurring service fee, payments relating to certain Service-related operating expenses and capital expenditures, including under the satellite procurement agreement with Macdonald, Dettwiler and Associates Corporation ("MDA" or, the "Vendor"), and potential bonus payments subject to satisfaction of certain licensing, service and related criteria.

In addition to the services provided under the Service Agreements, we intend to continue to develop wholesale customer opportunities over our retained satellite capacity (discussed below) for IoT and other initiatives.

We retain 15% of network capacity to support our existing and future Duplex, SPOT and IoT subscribers. This capacity can support a substantial increase in our own subscriber base, particularly following recent and planned investments in our space and ground segments. The retained satellite capacity can be used by us directly or through additional wholesale arrangements.

Terrestrial Spectrum

We have terrestrial licenses in 11 countries resulting in approximately 10.0 billion MHz-POPs (megahertz of our spectrum authority in each country multiplied by a total population of approximately 797 million over the covered area). Prospective spectrum partners, including cable companies, legacy or upstart wireless carriers, system integrators, utilities and other infrastructure operators, all benefit from access to uniform and increasingly “borderless” spectrum working across geographies. Our expanding portfolio of terrestrial spectrum represents a substantial opportunity for us. Given our senior status as the incumbent operator in the Big LEO band, we believe that our valuable assets include our extensive portfolio of domestic and international licenses to access the globally harmonized spectrum that is essential to all of the services that we offer today and into the future. The Service Agreements significantly enhance the device ecosystem for Band 53/n53.

IoT

Satellite IoT connectivity has become more critical to a growing number of sectors and use cases. We plan to continue to evolve and develop our IoT initiatives. In June 2022, we introduced the Realm Enablement Suite, an innovative portfolio of satellite asset tracking hardware and software solutions featuring a powerful application enablement platform for processing smart data at the edge, which improves processing time and reliability in remote locations. With Realm, partners can accelerate new solutions to market with smart applications that generate an advanced level of telematics data. The Realm Enablement Suite includes Integrity 150, the first solar-powered, deployment-ready satellite asset tracking device with an application enablement platform; ST150M, a satellite modem module that drastically simplifies product development; and the Realm application enablement platform, which will offer tools and an extensive library for quickly accessing and developing smart applications at the edge for vertical-specific solutions.

We also continue to expand deployments that support environmentally friendly initiatives, including remote monitoring of fluid levels and tanks, which replaces the need for motor vehicles to access these assets, as well as asset monitoring solutions for solar lighting and other renewable energy sources.

In 2023, we expect to introduce a two-way commercial IoT product which would significantly expand our opportunities in the IoT Market because this technology would have capabilities that include both tracking as well as command control.

Legacy Services

We remain committed to our legacy satellite business and serving our current subscriber base while offering future innovations in MSS. Our existing Duplex and SPOT customers are expected to benefit from expanded capacity through additional ground infrastructure and satellites which improve service levels.

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Communications Products and Services

We currently provide the following communications services: 

two-way voice communication and data transmissions via our GSP-1600 and GSP-1700 phone ("Duplex");
one-way or two-way communication and data transmissions using mobile devices, including our SPOT family of products, such as SPOT X ®, SPOT Gen4TM and SPOT Trace®, that transmit messages and the location of the device ("SPOT");
one-way data transmissions using a mobile or fixed device that transmits its location and other information to a central monitoring station, including our commercial IoT products, such as our battery- and solar-powered SmartOne, STX-3, ST100, ST-150 and Integrity 150 ("Commercial IoT");
satellite network access and related services utilizing our satellite spectrum and network of satellites and gateways ("Wholesale Capacity Services"); and
engineering and other communication services using our MSS and terrestrial spectrum licenses ("Engineering and Other").
 
We compete aggressively on price. We offer a range of price-competitive products to the industrial, governmental and consumer markets. We expect to retain our position as a cost-effective, high-quality leader in the MSS industry. 

As technological advancements are made, we continue to explore opportunities to develop new products and provide new services over our network to meet the needs of our existing and prospective customers. We have pursued and continue to pursue initiatives that we expect will expand our satellite communications business and even more intensively utilize our network assets. These initiatives include evaluating our product and service offerings in light of the shift in demand across the MSS industry from full Duplex voice and data services to direct-to-handset and IoT-enabled devices. Integrated with this assessment is the development of a two-way reference design module to expand our Commercial IoT offerings, which is among our other current initiatives. In recent years, we have considered the value of maintaining our second-generation Duplex services in light of alternative uses for our capacity, including uses under the Service Agreements. As previously disclosed, in September 2022, we abandoned our second-generation Duplex assets, including gateway property, prepaid licenses and royalties, and inventory. We will continue to support first-generation Duplex services, including voice communications and data transmissions using our satellite phones and data modems.

Globalstar System

Satellite Network

Our constellation of Low Earth Orbit ("LEO") satellites includes second-generation satellites and certain first-generation satellites. We designed our satellite network so that at least one satellite is visible from any point on the Earth's surface between the latitudes 70° north and 70° south. We designed our second-generation satellites to last twice as long in space, have 40% greater capacity and be built at a significantly lower cost compared to our first-generation satellites.

Our goal is to provide service levels and call or message success rates equal to or better than our MSS competitors so our products and services are attractive to potential customers. We believe that our system outperforms geostationary (“GEO”) satellites used by some of our competitors. GEO satellite signals must travel approximately 42,000 additional miles on average, which introduces considerable delay and signal degradation to GEO calls.

In February 2022, we entered into a satellite procurement agreement with MDA pursuant to which we expect to acquire 17 satellites that will replenish our existing constellation and ensure long-term continuity of our mobile satellite services. We are acquiring the satellites to provide continuous satellite services to Partner under the Service Agreements, as well as services to our current and future customers. We have committed to purchase these new satellites for a total contract price of $327.0 million and have the option to purchase additional satellites at a lower per unit cost, subject to certain conditions. The technical specifications and design of these new satellites are similar to our current second-generation satellites. Rocket Lab USA, Inc. is the Vendor’s satellite bus subcontractor. The satellite procurement agreement requires the Vendor to deliver 17 new satellites by 2025, all of which are expected to be launched by the end of 2025. Under the Service Agreements, subject to certain terms and conditions, Partner has agreed to make service payments equal to 95% of the approved capital expenditures under the satellite procurement agreement (to be paid on a straight-line basis over the useful life of the satellites) and certain other costs incurred for the new satellites, as adjusted based on certain provisions, beginning with the Phase 2 Service Period.

In June 2022, we successfully launched our on-ground spare second-generation satellite. This satellite is expected to remain as an in-orbit spare and will only be raised to its operational orbit at a future date if needed.

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Ground Network

Our satellites communicate with a network of gateways, each of which serves an area of approximately 700,000 to 1,000,000 square miles. A gateway must be within line-of-sight of a satellite and the satellite must be within line-of-sight of the subscriber to provide services. We have positioned our gateways to provide coverage over most of the Earth's land and human population and continue to evaluate and expand our gateway footprint to optimize coverage.

Each of our gateways has multiple antennas that communicate with our satellites and pass communications seamlessly between antenna beams and satellites as the satellites traverse the gateways, thereby reflecting the signals from our users' terminals to our gateways. Once a satellite acquires a signal from an end-user, the Globalstar System authenticates the user and establishes the voice or data channel to complete the call to the public switched telephone network (“PSTN”), a cellular or another wireless network or the internet for data communications including Commercial IoT. Over the past few years, we have procured and installed new antennas at our new and existing gateways around the world.

We believe that our network's design enables faster and more cost-effective system maintenance and upgrades because the system's software and much of its hardware are located on the ground. Our multiple gateways allow us to reconfigure our system quickly to extend another gateway's coverage to make up for lost coverage from a disabled gateway or to handle increased call capacity resulting from surges in demand.

Our ground network includes our ground equipment, which uses patented CDMA technology to permit communication to multiple satellites. Our system architecture provides full frequency re-use. This maximizes satellite diversity (which maximizes quality) and network capacity as we can reuse the assigned spectrum in every satellite beam in every satellite. In addition, we have developed a proprietary technology for our SPOT and Commercial IoT services.

Throughout the past few years, we have commenced leases for additional gateways around the world. We also made significant progress on our initiative to upgrade certain gateway equipment, including new antennas and appliques, to improve our ability to pursue significant new opportunities to deploy our network assets as technologies and customer needs evolve and to ensure our network performance continues to excel as these opportunities increase demand on our capacity.
 
Customers
 
For our subscriber driven revenue, the specialized needs of our global customers span many industries. As of December 31, 2022, we had approximately 769,000 subscribers worldwide, principally within the following markets: recreation and personal; government; public safety and disaster relief; oil and gas; maritime and fishing; natural resources, mining and forestry; construction; utilities; animal tracking; and transportation. In response to Russia's invasion of Ukraine, during the first quarter of 2022, we disconnected satellite services to gateways in Russia that were operated by an independent gateway operator. Accordingly, approximately 25,000 subscribers that previously received satellite services through these gateways were removed from our subscriber count. Our subscriber count does not include our Partner's subscribers. Our system is able to offer our customers cost-effective communications solutions completely independent of cellular coverage. Although traditional users of wireless telephony and broadband data services have access to these services in developed locations, our customers often operate, travel and/or live in remote regions or regions with under-developed telecommunications infrastructure where these services are not readily available or are not provided on a reliable basis. Our top revenue-generating markets in the United States and Canada are government (including federal, state and local agencies), public safety and disaster relief, oil and gas, recreation and personal telecommunications. In recent years, the number of Commercial IoT devices on our network has increased significantly.

In addition to our subscribers, we also provide services to our Partner under the Service Agreements as discussed above in the Wholesale Capacity Services section. Our FCC license allows us to provide service over our network to up to 250 million users in the United States. Our subscriber count does not include our Partner's subscribers.

For the year ended December 31, 2022, our Partner under the Service Agreements was responsible for 24% of our revenue with no other customer responsible for more than 10% of our revenue. For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, no one customer was responsible for more than 10% of our revenue. The loss of a large customer, such as our Partner under the Service Agreements, could have an adverse impact to our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

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Duplex Two-Way Voice and Data Products
 
Mobile Voice and Data Satellite Communications Services and Equipment
 
We provide mobile voice and data services to a variety of commercial, government and individual customers for remote business continuity, recreational usage, safety, emergency preparedness and response and other applications. We offer our services for use only with equipment designed to work on our network. Subscribers typically pay an initial activation fee, a usage fee for a fixed or unlimited number of minutes, and fees for additional services such as voicemail, call forwarding, short messaging, email, data compression and internet access. We regularly monitor our service offerings and rate plans in accordance with customer demands and market changes and offer pricing plans such as bundled minutes, annual plans and unlimited plans. 

Although we no longer manufacture the GSP-1600 and GSP-1700 phones, we continue to support services for these devices. Both phones include Qualcomm Incorporated's ("Qualcomm") patented CDMA technology, which we believe provides superior voice quality when compared to competitors' handsets.
 
Product Distribution
 
Our sales group is responsible for conducting direct sales with key accounts and for managing partner relationships. Customers also place orders through our existing sales force and through our direct e-commerce website.
 
SPOT Consumer Retail Products
 
The SPOT product family has been used to initiate over 9,000 rescues since its launch in 2007. SPOT delivers affordable and reliable satellite-based connectivity and real-time GPS tracking to hundreds of thousands of users, completely independent of cellular coverage.

We differentiate ourselves from other MSS providers by offering affordable, high-utility mobile satellite products that appeal to both businesses and the mainstream consumer market. We believe that we are the only vertically-integrated mobile satellite company. Our vertical integration results in decreased pre-production costs, greater quality assurance and shorter time to market for our retail consumer products. 
  
We currently sell SPOT Gen4TM, SPOT X® and SPOT Trace®. SPOT Gen4TM offers enhanced tracking features and is also water resistant. The product enables users to transmit predefined messages to a specific preprogrammed email address, phone or data device, including requests for assistance and “SOS” messages in the event of an emergency. SPOT X® is a two-way SPOT device with keyboard functionality allowing subscribers to send and receive SMS messages. SPOT X® connects to a smartphone via Bluetooth® wireless technology through the SPOT X® app to send and receive satellite messages. SPOT Trace® is a cost-effective, anti-theft and asset-tracking device. SPOT Trace® ensures cars, motorcycles, boats, ATVs, snowmobiles and other valuable assets are where they need to be, notifying owners via email or text anytime movement is detected, using 100% satellite technology to provide location-based messaging and emergency notification for on or off the grid communications.

We target our SPOT devices to recreational and commercial markets that require personal tracking, emergency location and messaging solutions that operate beyond the reach of terrestrial wireless and wireline coverage. Using our network and web-based mapping software, these devices provide consumers with the ability to trace a path geographically or map the location of individuals or equipment. SPOT products and services are available through our product distribution channels and our direct e-commerce website. 
  
Product Distribution
 
We distribute and sell our SPOT products through a variety of distribution channels. We have distribution relationships with a number of "Big Box" retailers and other similar distribution channels, including Amazon, Bass Pro Shops, Cabela's, Camping World, REI, Sportsman's Warehouse, Academy and West Marine. We also sell SPOT products and services directly using our existing sales force and through our direct e-commerce website, www.findmespot.com.
 
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Commercial IoT Transmission Products
 
Commercial IoT service is currently a one-way data service from an IoT device over the Globalstar System that can be used to track and monitor assets. Our subscribers use our Commercial IoT devices for a host of applications: to track assets, such as cargo containers and rail cars; to monitor utility meters; and to monitor oil and gas assets. At the heart of the Commercial IoT service is a demodulator and RF interface, called an appliqué, which is located at a gateway and an application server in our facilities. The appliqué-equipped gateways provide coverage over vast areas of the globe. The small size of the IoT devices makes them attractive for use in tracking asset shipments, monitoring unattended remote assets, trailer tracking and mobile security. We provide Commercial IoT services to customers operating in a variety of industries, including primarily government, transportation, construction, agriculture and forestry. Current users include various governmental agencies, such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency, U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Forest Service and U.K. Ministry of Defence, as well as other organizations, such as BP, Shell and The Salvation Army.
 
We designed our Commercial IoT service to address demand in the market for a small and cost-effective solution for sending data, such as geographic coordinates, from assets or individuals in remote locations to a central monitoring station. Customers realize an efficiency advantage from tracking assets on a single global system as compared to several regional systems.
 
Satellite Transmitter Modules and Chips

We offer small satellite transmitter modules, such as the STX-3, ST-150 and ST100, and chips, such as our proprietary ASIC, which enable an integrator’s products to access our network. We have sales arrangements with major resellers to market our IoT services, including some value-added resellers that integrate our modules into their proprietary solutions designed to meet certain specialized niche market applications. The STX3 provides additional opportunities to integrate satellite connectivity into products used for vehicle and asset tracking, remote data reporting and data logger reporting that have limited size requirements. Affordable pricing, low power consumption and its small size make the STX3 a highly efficient device ready for integration in a wide variety of applications. The ST100, or ST100 Satellite Transmitter, is a small, lightweight and low power IoT board with embedded antennas. The ST100 offers a customizable approach to new commercial IoT product innovations and can be used by simply adding power, a mechanical enclosure and configuring the settings within the device firmware. For more advanced technical requirements, third parties can write their own firmware on the ST100 and utilize Bluetooth® wireless technology and the serial connector to expand the use of the board and integrate it with other devices or hardware. The ASIC provides a single chip one-way solution that can be embedded in a customer's own solution.

SmartOne Asset Managers

We also offer complete products that utilize the STX-3 transmitter module and our ASIC chip. Our Commercial IoT units, including the enterprise-grade SmartOne family of asset-ready tracking units, are used worldwide by industrial, commercial and government customers. These products provide cost-effective, low-power, ultra-reliable, secure monitoring that help solve a variety of security applications and asset tracking challenges. Partnering with existing third party technology providers, we are developing IoT products to connect existing and new users and accelerate deployment of an expanded Globalstar IoT product suite.

We also offer SmartOne Solar™, which is solar-powered and supports similar functionality to our SmartOne suite of products without the need to recharge batteries or line power the device over an expected life of up to ten years. These features will result in a longer field life than existing devices. Solar-powered devices also take advantage of our network's ability to support multiple billions of daily transmissions. The SmartOne Solar™ also has unparalleled safety and environmental certifications including ATEX, IECEx, North America (NEC & CEC), IP68/69K, and HERO. 

Realm Enablement Suite

The Realm Enablement Suite is an innovative portfolio of satellite asset tracking hardware and software solutions featuring a powerful application enablement platform for processing smart data at the edge. With Realm, partners can accelerate new solutions to market with smart applications that generate an advanced level of telematics data. The Realm Enablement Suite includes Integrity 150, the first solar-powered, deployment-ready satellite asset tracking device with an application enablement platform; ST150M, a satellite modem module that drastically simplifies product development; and the Realm application enablement platform, which will offer tools and an extensive library for quickly accessing and developing smart applications at the edge for vertical-specific solutions.

Future Developments
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We have other initiatives underway to expand our Commercial IoT offerings, including the development of a two-way reference design module, which we expect will complete our lineup of competitive product offerings. Operating on our Realm Enablement Suite, the two-way module and finished product will provide the fundamentals to effectively pursue sales opportunities with carriers, enterprises, large resellers, system integrators, and any party looking to extend their business models with satellite connectivity.

Product Distribution
 
The reseller channel for Commercial IoT equipment and service is comprised primarily of value-added resellers and commercial communications equipment companies that retain and bill clients directly, outside of our billing system. Many of our resellers specialize in niche vertical markets where high-use customers are concentrated. We expect that demand for our Commercial IoT products and services will increase as more applications are developed and deployed that utilize our technology.

Wholesale Capacity Services

Wholesale satellite capacity services include satellite network access and related services using our satellite spectrum and network of satellites and gateways.

Engineering and Other

We provide engineering services to assist certain customers in developing new applications to operate on our network and to enhance our ground network. These services include hardware and software designs to develop specific applications operating over our network, as well as the installation of gateways and antennas.

Spectrum and Regulatory Structure
 
We benefit from a worldwide allocation of radio frequency spectrum in the international radio frequency tables administered by the International Telecommunications Union (“ITU”). Access to this globally harmonized spectrum enables us to design satellites, networks and terrestrial infrastructure enhancements more cost effectively because the products and services can be deployed and sold worldwide. In addition, this broad spectrum assignment enhances our ability to capitalize on existing and emerging wireless and broadband applications.
 
Satellite Network
 
In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission ("FCC") has authorized us to operate between 1610-1618.725 MHz for “Uplink” communications from mobile earth terminals to our satellites and between 2483.5-2500 MHz for “Downlink” communications from our satellites to our mobile earth terminals. The FCC has also authorized us to operate our domestic gateways with our first and second-generation satellites in the 5091-5250 and 6875-7055 MHz bands. 

We licensed and registered our second-generation satellites in France. We also obtained all authorizations necessary from the FCC to operate our domestic gateways with our second-generation satellites. In accordance with our authorization to operate the second-generation satellites, we completed the enhancements to the existing gateway operations in Aussaguel, France to include satellite operations and control functions. We have redundant satellite operation control facilities in Covington, Louisiana, Milpitas, California and Aussaguel, France.

During 2020, our French authorizations to provide MSS and operate the gateway in Aussaguel, France were renewed for an additional 10-year term. We have also filed applications in both Germany and France to operate a substantially larger satellite constellation than we have today; these applications have been accepted by the ITU and have an established date.

Terrestrial Authority for Globalstar's Licensed 2.4 GHz Spectrum

In December 2016, the FCC unanimously adopted a Report and Order permitting us to seek modification of our existing MSS licenses to provide terrestrial broadband services over 11.5 MHz of our licensed Mobile Satellite Services spectrum at 2483.5 to 2495 MHz throughout the United States of America and its Territories. In August 2017, the FCC modified Globalstar's MSS licenses, granting us authority to provide terrestrial broadband services over the 11.5 MHz portion of our licensed MSS spectrum. Specifically, the FCC modified our space station authorization and our blanket mobile earth station license to permit a terrestrial network using 11.5 MHz of our licensed mobile-satellite service spectrum.
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In December 2018, we successfully completed the Third Generation Partnership Project (“3GPP”) standardization process for the 11.5 MHz of our licensed MSS spectrum terrestrially authorized by the FCC. The 3GPP designated the band as Band 53. Additionally, in March 2020, we announced that the 3GPP approved the 5G variant of our Band 53, which is known as n53. This new band class provides a pathway for our terrestrial spectrum to be integrated into handset and infrastructure ecosystems. Additional follow-on 3GPP specifications and approvals are expected in the future. During 2019, we executed a spectrum manager lease agreement with Nokia in order to permit Nokia to utilize Band 53 within its equipment domestically and have such equipment type-certified for sale and deployment.

In February 2021, Qualcomm Technologies announced its new Snapdragon X65 modem-RF System, which includes support for Band n53. By having global 5G band support for n53 in Qualcomm Technologies’ 5G solutions, our potential device ecosystem expands significantly to include the most popular smartphones, laptops, tablets, automated equipment and other IoT modules. In September 2022, we announced the Service Agreements, which require Partner to enable Band 53/n53 for use in cellular-enabled devices designated by Partner for use with the Services, subject to certain terms and conditions; we believe this inclusion significantly enhances the device ecosystem for Band 53/n53.

We believe our MSS spectrum position provides potential for harmonized terrestrial authority across many international regulatory domains and have been seeking approvals in various international jurisdictions. To date, we have received additional terrestrial authorizations in various countries including Brazil, Canada and South Africa, among others. We expect this global effort to continue for the foreseeable future while we seek additional terrestrial approvals to internationally harmonize our S-band spectrum across the entire 16.5 MHz authority for terrestrial mobile broadband services.

We expect our terrestrial authority will allow future partners to develop high-density dedicated networks using the TD-LTE and 5G protocols for private networks as well as the densification of cellular networks. We believe that our offering has competitive advantages over other conventional commercial spectrum allocations. Such other allocations must meet minimum population coverage requirements, which effectively prohibit the exclusive use of most carrier spectrum for dedicated small cell deployments. In addition, low frequency carrier spectrum is not physically well suited to high-density small cell topologies, and mmWave spectrum is subject to range and attenuation limitations. We believe that our licensed 2.4 GHz band holds physical, regulatory and ecosystem qualities that distinguishes it from other current and anticipated allocations, and that it is well positioned to balance favorable range, capacity and attenuation characteristics.
 
Industry
 
We compete in the MSS sector of the global communications industry. MSS operators provide voice and data services using a network of one or more satellites and associated ground facilities. Mobile satellite services are usually complementary to other forms of terrestrial communications services and infrastructure and are intended to allow for connectivity beyond the reach of cellular. Customers typically use satellite voice and data communications in situations where existing terrestrial wireline and wireless communications networks are impaired or do not exist.
 
Government organizations, military, natural disaster aid associations, event-driven response agencies and corporate security teams across the world depend on mobile and fixed voice and data communications services on a regular basis. Businesses with global operations require communications services when operating in remote locations. MSS users span the forestry, maritime, government, oil and gas, mining, leisure, emergency services, construction and transportation sectors, among others.
 
Over the past two decades, the global MSS market has experienced significant growth. Increasingly, better-tailored, improved technology products and services are creating new channels of demand. Growth in demand for mobile satellite services is driven by the declining cost of these services, the diminishing size and lower cost of the devices, as well as heightened demand by governments, businesses and individuals for ubiquitous global voice and data coverage. Growth in mobile satellite data services is driven by the rollout of new applications requiring higher bandwidth, as well as low-cost data collection and asset-tracking devices and technological improvements permitting integration of mobile satellite services over smartphones and other Wi-Fi enabled devices.

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Communications industry sectors that are relevant to our business include:
 
MSS, which provide customers with connectivity to mobile and fixed devices using a network of satellites and ground facilities;
fixed satellite services, which use geostationary satellites to provide customers with voice and broadband communications links between fixed points on the earth's surface; and
terrestrial services, which use a terrestrial network to provide wireless or wireline connectivity and are complementary to satellite services.

Additionally, the emergence of satellite to cellular technology has brought with it an increased number of satellite providers working in collaboration with mobile providers to extend smart phone messaging capability.

Within the major satellite sectors, fixed and MSS operators differ significantly from each other. Fixed satellite services providers, such as Intelsat Ltd., Eutelsat Communications and SES S.A., and aperture terminal companies, such as Hughes and Gilat Satellite Networks, are characterized by large, often stationary or "fixed," ground terminals that send and receive high-bandwidth signals to and from the satellite network for video and high speed data customers and international telephone markets. On the other hand, MSS providers, such as Globalstar, ORBCOMM, Inmarsat PLC (“Inmarsat”) and Iridium Communications Inc. (“Iridium”), focus more on voice and/or data services (including data services which track the location of remote assets such as shipping containers), where mobility or small-sized terminals are essential. As mobile satellite terminals begin to offer higher bandwidth to support a wider range of applications, we expect MSS operators will increasingly compete with fixed satellite services operators.
 
LEO systems reduce transmission delay compared to a geosynchronous system due to the shorter distance signals have to travel. In addition, LEO systems are less prone to signal blockage and, consequently, we believe provide a better overall quality of service.

We are also a provider of licensed wireless spectrum for use in terrestrial networks. As more and more devices are connected wirelessly and as their applications increase in bandwidth intensity, more terrestrial spectrum is required. In the United States, there are a number of other current licensed spectrum providers, including Anterix, Nextwave and Terrastar as well as various other licensed spectrum holders. We also provide an alternative to unlicensed spectrum used with Wi-Fi or lightly licensed spectrum like CBRS.

Each spectrum band is unique due to its propagation or ecosystem development; accordingly, some bands suit needs that others may not. Our spectrum band offers partners an international resource that has a robust and growing ecosystem.

Competition
 
The global communications industry is highly competitive. We currently face substantial competition from other service providers that offer a range of mobile and fixed communications options. Our most direct competition comes from other global MSS providers. Our largest global competitors are ORBCOMM, Inmarsat and Iridium. We compete primarily on the basis of coverage, quality, portability and pricing of services and products. In recent years, advancements in technology have also encouraged non-traditional companies to enter the market.
 
Inmarsat owns and operates a fleet of geostationary satellites. Due to its multiple-satellite geostationary system, Inmarsat's coverage area extends to and covers most bodies of water more completely than our system. Accordingly, Inmarsat is the leading provider of satellite communications services to the maritime sector. Inmarsat also offers global land-based and aeronautical communications services. We compete with Inmarsat in several key areas, particularly in our maritime markets. Inmarsat markets mobile handsets designed to compete with both Iridium’s mobile handset service and our GSP-1700 handset service.
 
Iridium owns and operates a fleet of low earth orbit satellites. Iridium provides voice and data communications to businesses, the United States government as well as foreign governments, non-governmental organizations and consumers. Iridium markets products and services that are similar to those marketed by us. Additionally, Garmin's inReach devices provide two-way tracking with SOS capabilities, Honeywell Global Tracking has a personal tracking unit that enables a smartphone with satellite tracking and messaging capabilities and Somewear has a satellite hotspot; these products work on Iridium's satellite network.

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ORBCOMM owns and operates a fleet of low earth orbit satellites. ORBCOMM primarily provides asset tracking, monitoring and control solutions for its customers in the IoT market, which directly compete with our IoT products and services.
 
We compete with regional mobile satellite communications services in several markets. In these cases, our competitors serve customers who require regional, not global, mobile voice and data services, so our competitors present a viable alternative to our services in certain markets. All of these competitors operate geostationary satellites. Our principal regional MSS competitor in the Middle East and Africa is Thuraya.

Our direct to device service also faces competition from newly announced service providers, including SpaceX, Iridium and a number of new market entrants. While our service is currently the most robust service providing satellite capabilities to smartphones, other satellite service providers are expected to provide similar satellite services in the near-term to competitive smartphone devices.
 
In some of our markets, such as rural telephony, we compete directly or indirectly with very small aperture terminal (“VSAT”) operators that offer communications services through private networks using very small aperture terminals or hybrid systems to target business users. VSAT operators have become increasingly competitive due to technological advances that have resulted in smaller, more flexible and less expensive terminals.
 
We compete indirectly with terrestrial wireline (“landline”) and wireless communications networks. We provide service in areas that are inadequately covered by these ground systems. To the extent that terrestrial communications companies invest in underdeveloped areas, we will face increased competition in those areas.
 
Our SPOT products compete indirectly with Personal Locator Beacons (“PLBs”). A variety of manufacturers offer PLBs to industry specifications.
 
Our industry has significant barriers to entry, including the cost and difficulty associated with obtaining spectrum licenses and successfully building and launching a satellite and ground network. In addition to cost, there is a significant amount of lead-time associated with obtaining the required licenses, designing and building the satellite constellation and synchronizing the network technology.
 
For terrestrial spectrum opportunities, our primary competition is other licensed and unlicensed spectrum alternatives and, to a lesser extent, lightly licensed bands. Anterix, a licensed spectrum holder, is also a successful competitor for use cases that require low data over longer distances. We may be able to address certain of these use cases with spectrum provided by our satellite network.

Governmental Regulations

Please refer to Item 1A: Risk Factors - "Risks Related to Government Regulations" for further discussion of the impact of governmental regulations on our business.

United States International Traffic in Arms Regulations and United States Export Administration Regulations

The United States International Traffic in Arms regulations under the United States Arms Export Control Act authorize the President of the United States to control the export and import of articles and services that can be used in the production of arms. The President has delegated this authority to the U.S. Department of State, Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. United States Export Administration Regulations enforced by the United States Bureau of Industry and Security, as well as regulations enforced by the United States Office of Foreign Assets Control regulate the export of certain products, services, and associated technical data. Among other things, these regulations limit the ability to export certain articles and related technical data to certain nations. Some information involved in the performance of our operations falls within the scope of these regulations. As a result, we may have to obtain an export authorization or restrict access to that information by international companies that are our vendors or service providers. We have received and expect to continue to receive export licenses for covered articles and technical data shared with approved parties outside the United States. We also are subject to restrictions related to transactions with persons subject to United States or foreign sanctions. These regulations, enforced by the United States Office of Foreign Assets Control, limit our ability to offer services and equipment to certain parties or in certain areas.
 
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Environmental Matters
 
We are subject to various laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment and human health and safety (including those governing the management, storage and disposal of hazardous materials). Some of our operations require continuous power supply. As a result, current and historical operations at our ground facilities, including our gateways, include storing fuels and batteries, which may contain hazardous materials, to power back-up generators. As an owner or operator of property and in connection with our current and historical operations, we could incur significant costs, including cleanup costs, fines, sanctions and third-party claims, as a result of violations of or in connection with liabilities under environmental laws and regulations.
  
Foreign Operations
 
We supply services and products to a number of foreign customers. Although most of our sales are denominated in U.S. dollars, we are exposed to currency risk for sales in Canada, Europe, Brazil and various other countries. In 2022, approximately 27% of our sales were generated in foreign countries, which generally are denominated in local currencies. See Note 2: Revenue in the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding revenue by country. For more information about our exposure to risks related to foreign locations, see Item 1A: Risk Factors - "We face special risks by doing business in international markets and developing markets, including currency and expropriation risks, which could increase our costs or reduce our revenues in these areas."
 
Intellectual Property
 
We hold various U.S. and foreign patents and patents pending that expire between 2023 and 2039. These patents cover many aspects of our satellite system, our global network and our user terminals. In recent years, we have reduced our foreign filings and decided to allow some previously granted foreign patents to lapse based on (a) the relative significance of the patent, (b) our assessment of the likelihood that someone would infringe in the foreign country, and (c) the probability that we could or would enforce the patent in light of the expense of filing and maintaining the foreign patent which, in some countries, is quite substantial. We continue to maintain all of the patents in the United States, Canada and Europe that we believe are important to our business. Our intellectual property is pledged as security for our obligations under our credit facility agreement we entered into in 2019 (the "2019 Facility Agreement").
 
Human Capital
 
As of December 31, 2022, we had 332 employees in fourteen countries around the world; 22 of our employees were located in Brazil and subject to collective bargaining agreements. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good. We are an equal opportunity employer and comply with labor and employment laws in all of the countries in which we operate.

Our compensation and benefit packages are designed to attract and retain employees and were developed using market research. We attract employees through various platforms, such as online job portals, recruiters, in-person job fairs, local universities and employee referrals. Salaries are competitive and based on job position, physical location, experience and skills. In addition to base salary, certain employees participate in longer-term incentive programs, which include awards of stock-based compensation. Our benefits packages include, but are not limited to, health insurance, a retirement plan, an employee stock purchase plan, flexible spending accounts, life and accidental injury insurance, long- and short-term disability, and paid time off for holidays, vacation, personal choice holidays, sick time and parental leave.

We also encourage training and development through Globalstar University, which is an online platform that hosts a variety of training programs ranging from leadership and management programs to technical, on the job training. Employee engagement is also important for us, and includes an interactive wellness program, corporate communications and employee surveys. Our commitment to diversity and inclusion is part of our worldwide culture, which our employees confirmed in our most recent employee survey as "Diversity and Inclusion" continues to be one of the highest rated culture categories.

In response to COVID-19 mitigation measures, we remain focused on the health and safety of our employees. We continue to support hybrid working arrangements and accommodate flexible work schedules, as needed.

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Seasonality
 
Usage on the network and, to some extent, sales are subject to seasonal and situational changes. April through October are typically our peak months for usage-based service revenues and equipment sales. We also experience event-driven revenue fluctuations in our business. Most notably, emergencies, natural disasters and other sizable projects where satellite-based communications devices are the only solution may generate an increase in revenue. In the consumer area, SPOT devices sales are influenced by outdoor and leisure activity opportunities, as well as our holiday promotions.

Services and Equipment
 
Sales of services accounted for approximately 89%, 85% and 88% of our total revenues for 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively. We also sell the related voice and data equipment to our customers, which accounted for approximately 11%, 15% and 12% of our total revenues for 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively.
 
Global Chip Shortage

In recent years, the global chip shortage has negatively impacted our manufacturing processes, including causing delays in and increased costs of sourcing certain component parts. We have mitigated some of the impact of these shortages through strategic changes in our manufacturing process and supply chain.

Additional Information

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). The SEC maintains an internet site that contains annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy and information statements and other information that issuers (including Globalstar) file electronically with the SEC. Our electronic SEC filings are available to the public at the SEC's internet site, www.sec.gov.

We make available free of charge financial information, news releases, SEC filings, including our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to these reports on our website at www.globalstar.com as soon as reasonably practical after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The documents available on, and the contents of, our website are not incorporated by reference into this Report.
 
Item 1A. Risk Factors
 
You should carefully consider the risks described below, as well as all of the information in this Report and all of the other reports we file from time to time with the SEC, in evaluating and understanding us and our business. Additional risks not presently known or that we currently deem immaterial may also impact our business operations and the risks identified in this Report may adversely affect our business in ways we do not currently anticipate. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks.

Risks Related to Our Business
Revenue under the Service Agreements constitutes a substantial portion of our current revenues, and there is no assurance that we will receive the revenue expected under the Service Agreements.
The Service Agreements contributed approximately 24% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022. The Service Agreements impose a number of substantial obligations on us, provide for certain of our fees to be payable only upon satisfaction of the conditions therein and are terminable by each party. It is possible that we may fail to meet these obligations, that the conditions to the payment of such fees may not be satisfied, that our Partner's products that employ the Services will not succeed or that the Service Agreements may be terminated. If any of these events were to occur, we would not receive the revenues we currently expect to receive under the Service Agreements, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

If we experience operational disruptions with respect to our gateways or operations center, we may not be able to provide service to our customers.
Our satellite network traffic is supported by our gateways located around the globe. We operate our satellite constellation from our Network Operations Control Centers at three locations (France, California and Louisiana) to provide geo-redundancy and ongoing coverage. Our gateway facilities are subject to the risk of significant malfunctions or catastrophic loss due to unanticipated events and would be difficult to replace or repair and could require substantial lead-time to do so. In North
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America, we have implemented contingency coverage which allows neighboring gateways to provide services in the event of a gateway failure. Material changes in the operation of these facilities may be subject to prior FCC approval, and the FCC might not give such approval or may subject the approval to other conditions that could be unfavorable to our business. Our gateways and operations centers may also experience service shutdowns or periods of reduced service in the future as a result of equipment failure, delays in deliveries, regulatory issues or routine system testing. Equipment failures would impede our ability to provide service to our customers, which could have a material impact on our business.

The actual orbital lives of our satellites may be shorter than we anticipate, and we may be required to reduce available capacity on our satellite network prior to the end of their orbital lives.
Although we designed our second-generation satellites to provide commercial service over a 15-year life, we can provide no assurance as to whether any or all of them will continue in operation for their full 15-year design life. A number of factors will affect the actual commercial service lives of each satellite, including:
the amount of propellant used in maintaining the satellite's orbital location or relocating the satellite to a new orbital location (and, for a newly-launched satellite, the amount of propellant used during orbit raising following launch); 
the durability and quality of its construction; 
the performance of its components; 
hazards and conditions in space such as solar flares and space debris;
operational considerations, including operational failures and other anomalies; and 
changes in technology which may make all or a portion of our satellite fleet obsolete.
It is possible that the actual orbital lives of one or more of our existing satellites may be shorter than originally anticipated. Further, it is possible that the total available payload capacity of a satellite may need to be reduced prior to the satellite reaching its end-of-orbital life. We periodically review the expected orbital life of each of our satellites using current engineering data. A reduction in the orbital life of any of our satellites could result in a reduction of revenue, the recognition of an impairment loss and an acceleration of capital expenditures. The potential impact on our revenue from a reduction in the orbital life of one or more satellites may vary depending on the satellite's orbital location as well as the type of device and service a customer is using.

Our satellites may collide with space debris which could adversely affect the performance of our constellation.
Our ability to maneuver our satellites to avoid potential collisions with space debris is limited by, among other factors, uncertainties and inaccuracies in the projected orbit location of, and predicted conjunctions with, debris objects tracked and cataloged by the U.S. government. Some space debris is too small to be tracked, and therefore its orbital location is completely unknown. Debris that cannot be tracked is still large enough to potentially cause severe damage to or failure of one of our satellites should a collision occur. If our constellation experiences satellite collisions with space debris, our service could be impaired. Any such collision could potentially expose us to significant losses.

A natural disaster could diminish our ability to provide communications service.
Natural disasters could damage or destroy our ground stations and disrupt service to our customers. In addition, the collateral effects of disasters such as flooding may impair, damage or destroy our ground equipment. If a natural disaster were to impair, damage or destroy any of our ground facilities, we may be rendered unable to provide service to our customers in the affected area, either temporarily or indefinitely. Even if our gateways are not affected by natural disasters, our service could be disrupted if a natural disaster damages the public switch telephone network, terrestrial wireless networks or our ability to connect to the public switch telephone network or terrestrial wireless networks. Additionally, there are inherent dangers and risk associated with our satellite operations, including the risk of increased radiation. Any such failures or service disruptions could harm our business and results of operations. 

The implementation of our business plan and our ability to generate income from operations assume we are able to maintain a healthy constellation and ground network capable of providing commercially acceptable levels of coverage and service quality, which are contingent on a number of factors.
Our products and services are subject to the risks inherent in relying on a large-scale, complex telecommunications system employing advanced technology. Any disruption to our satellites, services, information systems or telecommunications infrastructure could result in degrading or disrupting services to our customers for an indeterminate period of time.
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Satellites utilize highly complex technology and operate in the harsh environment of space and therefore are subject to significant operational risks while in orbit. Our satellites may experience temporary outages or otherwise may not be fully functioning at any given time. There are some remote tools we use to remedy certain types of problems affecting the performance of our satellites, but the physical repair of satellites in space is not feasible. We do not insure our satellites against in-orbit failures after an initial period of six months, whether the failures are caused by internal or external factors. In-orbit failure may result from various causes, including component failure, solar array failures, telemetry transmitter failures, loss of power or fuel, inability to control positioning of the satellite, solar or other astronomical events, including solar radiation and flares, and collision with space debris or other satellites. These failures are commonly referred to as anomalies. Some of our satellites have had malfunctions and other anomalies in the past and may have anomalies in the future. Anomalies may occur, for reasons described above or arising from the failure of other systems or components, and intrasatellite redundancy may not be available upon the occurrence of such anomalies. There can be no assurance that, in these cases, it will be possible to restore normal operations. Where service cannot be restored, the failure could cause the satellite to have less capacity available for service, to suffer performance degradation or to cease operating prematurely, either in whole or in part. We cannot guarantee that we could successfully develop and implement a solution if one of these anomalies occurs.
In addition, satellites are particularly vulnerable to loss and malfunction at the time they are launched and deployed into orbit, and some of our competitors have experienced catastrophic losses of substantial numbers of satellites in connection with launch and deployment. While we typically obtain launch insurance to mitigate the risk of such a loss, such insurance would not cover all our economic losses if we experienced such an event, and there would be a substantial delay before we could obtain satellites to replace the ones we lost. Accordingly, a loss of a significant number of our new satellites at launch or deployment could adversely affect our ability to continue to provide our existing satellite services and may cause us to lose opportunities to use our constellation to provide new services. Additionally, human operators may execute improper implementation commands that may negatively impact a satellite's performance.
If a satellite fails prior to the end of its estimated useful life, we record an impairment charge in our statement of operations to reduce the remaining net book value of that satellite to zero; any such impairment charges could depress our net income (or increase our net loss) for the period in which the failure occurs.
 
The implementation of our business plan depends on increased demand for wireless communications services via satellite (including IoT applications) and via terrestrial mobile broadband networks, both for our existing services and products and for new services and products.
We plan to introduce new products and services that work over our network as well as terrestrial mobile broadband services. However, demand for wireless communication services may not grow, or may decrease, either generally or in particular geographic markets, for particular types of services or during particular time periods. A lack of demand could impair our ability to sell our services, could exert downward pressure on prices, or both. This, in turn, could decrease our revenue and profitability and adversely affect our ability to increase our revenue and profitability over time.
 The success of our business plan will depend on a number of factors, including but not limited to: 
our ability to maintain the health, capacity and control of our satellites;
our ability to maintain the health of our ground network;
our ability to influence the level of market acceptance and demand for our products and services;
our ability to introduce new products and services that meet this market demand;
our ability to retain current customers and obtain new customers;
our ability to obtain additional business using our existing and future spectrum authority both in the United States and internationally;
our ability to control the costs of developing an integrated network providing related products and services, as well as our future terrestrial mobile broadband services;
our ability to market successfully our products and services;
our ability to develop and deploy innovative network management techniques to permit mobile devices to transition between satellite and terrestrial modes;
the cost and availability of user equipment that operates on our network;
the effectiveness of our competitors in developing and offering similar products and services;
our ability to successfully predict market trends;
our ability to hire and retain qualified executives, managers and employees;
our ability to provide attractive service offerings at competitive prices to our target markets; and
our ability to raise additional capital on acceptable terms when required.
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Rapid and significant technological changes in the satellite communications industry may impair our competitive position and require us to make significant capital expenditures, which may require additional capital that has not been arranged.
 The space and communications industries are subject to rapid advances and innovations in technology. New technology could render our system obsolete or less competitive by satisfying consumer demand in more attractive ways or through the introduction of incompatible standards. Particular technological developments that could adversely affect us include the deployment by our competitors of new satellites with greater power, flexibility, efficiency or capabilities, as well as continuing improvements in terrestrial wireless technologies. We must continue to keep up with technological changes and remain competitive. Customer acceptance of the services and products that we offer will continually be affected by the technology in our product and service offerings relative to competitive offerings. New technologies may be protected by patents and therefore may not be available to us. We expect to face competition from companies using new technologies and new satellite systems.
The hardware and software we utilize in operating our first-generation gateways were designed and manufactured over 20 years ago and portions have deteriorated. This original equipment may become less reliable as it ages and will be more difficult and expensive to service. It may be difficult or impossible to obtain all necessary replacement parts for the hardware before the new equipment and software is fully deployed. Some of the hardware and software we use in operating our gateways are significantly customized and tailored to meet our requirements and specifications and could be difficult and expensive to service, upgrade or replace. Although we maintain inventories of some spare parts, it nonetheless may be difficult, expensive or impossible to obtain replacement parts for our hardware due to a limited number of parts being manufactured to our requirements and specifications. In addition, our business plan contemplates updating or replacing some of the hardware and software in our network as technology advances, but the complexity of our requirements and specifications may present us with technical and operational challenges that complicate or otherwise make it expensive or infeasible to carry out such upgrades and replacements. If we are not able to suitably service, upgrade or replace our equipment, it could harm our ability to provide our services and generate revenue.

We face intense competition in all of our markets, which could result in a loss of customers, lower revenues and difficulty entering new markets.
Satellite-based Competitors
There are currently at least four other MSS operators providing services similar to ours on a global or regional basis: Iridium, Thuraya, Inmarsat and ORBCOMM Inc. Recently, the FCC partially approved SpaceX's application to launch a portion of its satellite constellation. The provision of satellite-based products and services is subject to downward price pressure when the capacity exceeds demand or as new competitors enter the marketplace with competitive pricing strategies. We also face competition with respect to network coverage and market share in specialized industries, such as maritime and governmental.
Other providers of satellite-based products could introduce their own products similar to our SPOT, Commercial IoT or Duplex products, which may materially adversely affect our business plan and sales volume. In addition, we may face competition from new competitors or new technologies. Many companies target the same customers, and we may not be able to successfully retain our existing customers or attract new customers. As a result, we may not grow our customer base and revenue.
Additionally, in connection with the Service Agreements, our direct to device service, also faces competition from other satellite service providers that are expected to provide similar satellite services to competitive smartphone devices.
Terrestrial Competitors
In addition to our satellite-based competitors, terrestrial wireless voice and data service providers are continuing to expand into rural and remote areas, particularly in less developed countries. They provide the same general types of services and products that we provide through our satellite-based system. Many of these companies have greater resources, more name recognition and newer technologies than we do. Industry consolidation could adversely affect us by increasing the scale or scope of our competitors and thereby making it more difficult for us to compete. We could lose market share and revenue as a result of increasing competition from land-based communication service providers.
Although satellite communications services and ground-based communications services are not identical, the two compete in similar markets with similar services. Consumers may perceive cellular voice communication products and services as cheaper and more convenient than satellite-based products and services.
Terrestrial Broadband Network Competitors
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We also expect to compete with a number of other satellite companies that plan to develop terrestrial networks that utilize their MSS spectrum. DISH Network received FCC approval to offer terrestrial wireless services over the MSS spectrum that previously belonged to TerreStar and ICO Global. Furthermore, Ligado Networks (formerly LightSquared) also received FCC approval to build out a wireless network utilizing its MSS spectrum. Any of these competitors could deploy terrestrial mobile broadband networks before we do, could combine with existing terrestrial networks that provide them with greater financial or operational flexibility than we have or could offer wireless services, including mobile broadband services, that customers prefer over ours.
Other Spectrum Owners
In the United States, our terrestrial spectrum efforts will compete with other terrestrial spectrum holders including Anterix, Nextwave and holders to CBRS licenses. The government may also unlock new spectrum bands.

Uncertain global macro-economic and political conditions could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Our results of operations are materially affected by economic and political conditions in the United States and internationally, including inflation, deflation, interest rates, recession, availability of capital, energy and commodity prices, trade laws and the effects of governmental initiatives to manage economic conditions. Current or potential customers may delay or decrease spending on our products and services as their business and/or budgets are impacted by economic conditions. The inability of current and potential customers to pay us for our products and services may adversely affect our earnings and cash flows. In addition, deterioration of conditions in worldwide credit markets could limit our ability to obtain financing to fund our operations and capital expenditures.
The current invasion of Ukraine by Russia has escalated tensions among the United States, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (“NATO”) and Russia. The United States and other NATO member states, as well as non-member states, have announced new sanctions against Russia and certain Russian banks, enterprises and individuals. These and any future additional sanctions and any resulting conflict between Russia, the United States and NATO countries could have an adverse impact on our current operations.
Further, such invasion, ongoing military conflict, resulting sanctions and related countermeasures by NATO states, the United States and other countries are likely to lead to market disruptions, including significant volatility in commodity prices, credit and capital markets, as well as supply chain interruptions for equipment, which could have an adverse impact on our operations and financial performance.

Volatility in the financial markets may impede our ability to access capital markets and may adversely affect our financial condition.
Our Service Agreements with Partner require us to raise additional financing, such as to refinance our 2019 Facility Agreement. Turmoil in the capital markets, including the tightening of credit and increased interest rates, have impacted, and may continue to impact in the future, our ability to raise financing on terms and at a cost favorable to the Company. We are, and may be again in the future, required to raise capital during a weak economy, and have little flexibility to wait for more favorable terms or economic conditions. We are likely to face higher borrowing costs, less available capital, more stringent terms and tighter covenants. Such unfavorable market conditions could have an adverse impact on our ability to fund our operations and capital expenditures in the future, including our obligations under the Service Agreements and the satellite procurement agreement with MDA. Any adverse change in the terms of our financing, including increased costs, could have a negative impact on our financial condition.

Lack of availability of components from the electronics industry, required in our retail products, gateways and satellites could delay or adversely impact our operations.
 We rely upon the availability of components, materials and component parts from the electronics industry. The electronics industry is subject to occasional shortages in parts availability depending on fluctuations in supply and demand. Industry shortages may result in delayed shipments of materials or increased prices, or both. As a consequence, elements of our operation which use electronic parts, such as our retail products, gateways and satellites, could be subject to disruptions, cost increases or both. Recent disruptions in the global supply chain have limited our ability to procure component parts timely and at reasonable prices. During 2022, supply chain disruptions and production issues negatively impacted our ability to sell our most popular SPOT and Commercial IoT products. We continue to fulfill customer orders, including the sell-through of safety stock, and maintain adequate margins on subscriber equipment sales as well as maintain our gateways; however the continued impact of global component part shortages is unknown and may continue to adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Our business is capital intensive. We may not be able to raise adequate capital to finance our business strategies, or we may be able to do so only on terms that significantly restrict our ability to operate our business.
Implementation of our longer-term business strategy requires a substantial outlay of capital. As we pursue business strategies and seek to respond to developments in our business and opportunities and trends in our industry, our actual capital expenditures may differ from our expected capital expenditures. There can be no assurance that we will be able to satisfy our capital requirements in the future. In addition, if one of our satellites failed unexpectedly, there can be no assurance of insurance recovery for our losses or the timing thereof, and we may need to obtain additional financing to replace the satellite. When we determine we need to obtain additional funds through external financing and are unable to do so on terms and conditions we determine favorable to us or at all, we may be prevented from fully implementing our business strategy.

If we do not develop, acquire and maintain proprietary information and intellectual property rights, it could limit the growth of our business and reduce our market share. 
Our business depends on technical knowledge, and we base our business plan in part on our ability to keep up with new technological developments and incorporate them in our products and services. We own or have the right to use our patents, work products, inventions, designs, software, systems and similar know-how. Our proprietary information may be disclosed to others, or others may independently develop similar information, systems and know-how.
Protection of our information, systems and know-how may result in litigation, the cost of which could be substantial. Third parties may assert claims that our products or services infringe on their proprietary rights. Any such claims, if made, may prevent or limit our sales of products or services or increase our costs. Defending intellectual property suits is both costly and time-consuming and, even if ultimately successful, may divert management's attention from other business concerns. An adverse determination in litigation to which we may become a party could, among other things:
subject us to significant liabilities to third parties, including treble damages; 
require disputed rights to be licensed from a third party for royalties that may be substantial; 
require us to cease using technology that is important to our business; or 
prohibit us from selling some or all of our products or offering some or all of our services.

We face special risks by doing business in international markets and developing markets, including currency and expropriation risks, which could increase our costs or reduce our revenues in these areas.
 Although our most economically important geographic markets currently are the United States and Canada, we have substantial markets for our mobile satellite services in, and our business plan includes, developing countries or regions that are underserved by existing telecommunications systems, such as rural Brazil, Central America, Argentina and Africa. Developing countries are more likely than industrialized countries to experience market, currency and interest rate fluctuations and high inflation. In addition, these countries present risks relating to government policy, price, wage and exchange controls, social instability, expropriation and other adverse economic, political and diplomatic conditions.
Conducting operations outside the United States involves numerous special risks and expanding our international operations would increase these risks. These risks include, but are not limited to:
difficulties in penetrating new markets due to established and entrenched competitors;
difficulties in developing products and services that are tailored to the needs of local customers;
lack of local acceptance or knowledge of our products and services;
unavailability of or difficulties in establishing relationships with distributors;
significant investments, including the development and deployment of gateways in countries that require them to connect the traffic coming to and from their territory;
instability of international economies and governments;
changes in laws and policies affecting trade and investment in other jurisdictions;
noncompliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA"), UK Bribery Act, sanctions laws and export controls;
exposure to varying legal standards in other jurisdictions, including intellectual property protection and other similar laws and regulations;
difficulties in obtaining required regulatory authorizations;
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difficulties in enforcing legal rights in other jurisdictions;
variations in local domestic ownership requirements;
requirements that operational activities be performed in-country;
changing and conflicting national and local regulatory requirements; and
uncertainty in foreign currency exchange rates and exchange controls.
These risks could affect our ability to compete successfully and expand internationally. To the extent that the prices for our products and services are denominated in U.S. dollars, any appreciation of the U.S. dollar against other currencies will increase the cost of our products and services to our international customers and, as a result, may reduce the competitiveness of our international offerings and make it more difficult for us to grow internationally. Limited availability of U.S. currency in some local markets or governmental controls on the export of currency may prevent our customers from making payments in U.S. dollars or delay the availability of payment due to foreign bank currency processing and controls.
Our operations involve transactions in a variety of currencies. Sales denominated in foreign currencies involve primarily the Canadian dollar, the euro and the Brazilian real. Accordingly, our operating results may be significantly affected by fluctuations in the exchange rates for these currencies. Approximately 27% and 31% of our total revenue was to customers primarily located in Canada, Europe, Central America, and South America during 2022 and 2021, respectively. Our results of operations for 2022 and 2021 included net losses of approximately $6.6 million and net losses of $6.3 million, respectively, on foreign currency transactions. We may be unable to offset unfavorable currency movements as they adversely affect our revenue and expenses. Our inability to do so could have a substantial negative impact on our operating results and cash flows.

Our global operations expose us to trade and economic sanctions, other restrictions, liabilities and exposure to penalties imposed by the United States, the European Union and other governments and organizations.
The U.S. Departments of Justice, Commerce, State and Treasury and other federal agencies and authorities have a broad range of civil and criminal penalties they may seek to impose against corporations and individuals for violations of economic sanctions laws, export control laws, FCPA and other federal statutes and regulations, including those established by the Office of Foreign Assets Control ("OFAC"). Under these laws and regulations, as well as other anti-corruption laws, anti-money-laundering laws, export control laws, customs laws, sanctions laws and other laws governing our operations, various government agencies require export licenses. They may seek to impose modifications to business practices, including cessation of business activities in sanctioned countries or with sanctioned persons or entities and modifications to compliance programs, which may increase compliance costs, and may subject us to fines, penalties and other sanctions. A violation of these laws or regulations could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Although we have implemented policies and procedures in these areas, we cannot assure you that our policies and procedures are sufficient or that directors, officers, employees, representatives, distributors, consultants, other partners, vendors, customers or subscribers have not engaged and will not engage in conduct for which we may be held responsible. We cannot assure you that our business partners have not engaged and will not engage in conduct that could materially affect their ability to perform their contractual obligations to us or result in us being held liable for such conduct. Violations of the FCPA, OFAC restrictions or other export control, anti-corruption, anti-money-laundering and anti-terrorism laws or regulations may result in severe criminal or civil sanctions, and we may be subject to other liabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

Our indebtedness may adversely affect our cash flow and our ability to operate our business, including our ability to incur additional indebtedness.
Our principal near-term liquidity requirements include primarily funding our operating costs, capital expenditures, including repayment of amounts being financed through MDA, and future amounts expected to be incurred, under the satellite procurement agreement; repayment of the remaining principal balance due under the 2019 Facility Agreement; and interest and dividends due on any debt or preferred equity instruments outstanding. Our principal sources of liquidity during 2022 included cash on hand ($32.1 million), cash flows from operations and vendor financing. Our principal sources of liquidity over the next twelve months are expected to include cash on hand, cash flows from operations, prepayments under the Service Agreements (discussed in Recent Developments below) and funds from a debt or equity financing that has not yet been arranged.
Our operating expenses for the twelve-month period ended December 31, 2022 were $369.5 million, which included nonrecurring, noncash impairment charges of $175.1 million as well as noncash depreciation, amortization and accretion of $93.9 million.
Another source of liquidity may include proceeds from the exercise of warrants under the Service Agreements. We also expect sources of liquidity to include funds from other debt or equity financings that have not yet been arranged; we are
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actively pursuing a new financing arrangement to refinance amounts due under the 2019 Facility Agreement.
On a longer-term basis, our liquidity requirements also include debt service obligations. We cannot provide assurance that we will not experience a liquidity shortfall in the short or long-term.
As of December 31, 2022, the principal balance of our debt obligations was $203.0 million, consisting of $143.2 million under the 2019 Facility Agreement and $59.8 million under our vendor financing arrangement. In February 2023, we executed a prepayment agreement under the Service Agreements, whereby Partner is obligated, subject to certain conditions, to fund an amount up to approximately $252.0 million (to be adjusted as required), which is required to be recouped by Globalstar beginning at the earlier of phase two service launch or the third quarter of 2025.
Our indebtedness could restrict us from making strategic acquisitions by limiting our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, product development, debt service requirements, acquisitions and general corporate purposes. Our indebtedness could restrict us from paying dividends to our shareholders. It could limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business or industry, placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to competitors who are not as highly leveraged as us and who, therefore, may be able to take advantage of opportunities that our leverage prevents us from exploiting. Additionally, even though our current debt agreements place limits on our ability to incur additional debt, in the future we may incur additional debt which could further exacerbate these risks.
We may also access equity and debt capital markets from time to time or refinance our debt obligations with the intent to improve the terms of our indebtedness; the availability of such financing may be unavailable on terms and conditions we determine favorable to us or at all.

Restrictive covenants in our 2019 Facility Agreement and Service Agreements may limit our operating and financial flexibility and our inability to comply with these covenants could have significant implications.
Our 2019 Facility Agreement and prepayment agreement associated with the Service Agreements contain a number of significant restrictions and covenants. See Note 6: Long-Term Debt and Other Financing Arrangements in our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Report for further discussion of our debt covenants. Complying with these restrictive covenants, including financial and non-financial covenants, as well as those that may be contained in any agreements governing future indebtedness, may impair our ability to finance our operations or capital needs or to take advantage of favorable business opportunities. Our 2019 Facility Agreement includes a limitation on expenditures in connection with spectrum rights, which may prohibit us from making certain expenditures that we consider accretive to our business and would otherwise make. Our ability to comply with these covenants will depend on our future performance, which may be affected by events beyond our control. We have received waivers from our lenders in the past; however, we may not be successful in obtaining waivers from the remaining lender in the future, which may result in noncompliance with restrictions and covenants. Our failure to comply with these covenants would be an event of default. An event of default under the 2019 Facility Agreement or the Service Agreements would permit the lender to accelerate the indebtedness under these agreements. That acceleration would permit holders of our obligations under other agreements that contain cross-acceleration provisions to accelerate our obligations to them. See Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources of this Report for further discussion.

Our networks and those of our third-party service providers and customers may be vulnerable to unauthorized or unlawful access. Our use of personal information could give rise to costs and liabilities arising from developing data privacy laws.
Our network and those of our third-party service providers and our customers may be vulnerable to unauthorized access, attacks, malware, data breaches and other security problems. Persons who circumvent security measures could wrongfully obtain or use information from such networks or cause interruptions, delays or malfunctions in our operations. A data breach or network disruption could harm our reputation, cause demand for our products and services to fall or compromise our ability to pursue our business plans. A number of significant, widespread security breaches have compromised companies and governmental agencies. In some cases, these breaches originated from outside the United States. We may be required to expend significant resources to protect against the threat of security breaches or to alleviate problems, including reputational harm and litigation, caused by any breaches. In addition, our customer contracts may not adequately protect us against liability to third parties with whom our customers conduct business.
We collect and store data, including our customers' personal information. In jurisdictions around the world, personal information is increasingly becoming the subject of extensive legislation and regulations to protect consumers’ privacy and security, such as the EU's General Data Protection Regulation that became effective in 2018. The interpretation of privacy and data protection laws and regulations regarding the collection, storage, transmission, use and disclosure of such information in some jurisdictions is unclear and ever evolving. These laws may be interpreted and applied differently from country to country and in a manner that is not consistent with our current data protection practices. Complying with these varying international
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requirements could cause us to incur additional costs or change our business practices. Our services are accessible in many foreign jurisdictions, and some of these jurisdictions may claim that we are required to comply with their laws, even where we have no local entity, employees or infrastructure. We could be forced to incur significant expenses if we were required to modify our products, services or existing security and privacy procedures in order to comply with new or expanded regulations across numerous jurisdictions. In addition, we could face liability to end users alleging that their personal information is not collected, stored, transmitted, used or disclosed appropriately or in accordance with our privacy policies or applicable laws, including claims and litigation resulting from such allegations. Any failure on our part to protect information pursuant to applicable regulations could result in a loss of user confidence, reputation and customers, which could materially impact our results of operations and cash flows.

Due to fluctuations in the insurance market, we may be unable to obtain and maintain our insurance coverages, and the insurance we obtain may not cover all risks we undertake. As a result, we may incur material uninsured or under-insured losses.
The price, terms and availability of insurance have fluctuated significantly since we began offering commercial satellite services. The cost of obtaining insurance can vary as a result of either satellite failures or general conditions in the insurance industry. Rising premiums on insurance policies could increase our costs. In addition to higher premiums, insurance policies may provide for higher deductibles, shorter coverage periods and additional policy exclusions. Our insurance could become more expensive and difficult to maintain and may not be available in the future on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. Our failure to maintain sufficient insurance could also create an event of default under our debt agreements. Our insurance may not adequately cover losses incurred arising from claims brought against us or otherwise, which could be material. 
Product Liability Insurance and Product Replacement or Recall Costs
We may be subject to product liability and product recall claims if any of our products and services are alleged to have caused injury to persons or damage to property. If any of our products prove to be defective, we may need to recall and redesign them. In addition, any claim or product recall that results in significant adverse publicity may negatively affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. We do not maintain any product recall insurance, so any product recall we are required to initiate could have a significant impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. We investigate potential quality issues as part of our ongoing effort to deliver quality products to our customers.
 Because consumers may use SPOT products and services in isolated or dangerous locations, users of our devices who suffer injury or death may seek to assert claims against us alleging failure of the device to facilitate timely emergency response. We cannot assure investors that any legal disclaimers will be effective or insurance coverage will be sufficient to protect us from material losses.
General Liability Insurance In-Orbit Exposures
Our liability policy, covers amounts up to €70 million per occurrence (with a €70 million annual limit) that we and other specified parties may become liable to pay for bodily injury and property damages to third parties related to processing, maintaining and operating our satellite constellation. Our current policy has a one-year term, which expires in October 2023. Our current in-orbit liability insurance policy contains, and we expect any future policies would likewise contain, specified exclusions and material change limitations customary in the industry. These exclusions may relate to, among other things, losses resulting from in-orbit collisions, acts of war, insurrection, terrorism or military action, government confiscation, strikes, riots, civil commotions, labor disturbances, sabotage, unauthorized use of the satellites and nuclear or radioactive contamination, as well as claims directly or indirectly occasioned as a result of noise, pollution, electrical and electromagnetic interference or interference with the use of property.
Our in-orbit insurance does not cover losses that might arise as a result of a satellite failure, other operational problems affecting our constellation, or damage resulting from de-orbiting a satellite. As a result, a failure of one or more of our satellites or the occurrence of equipment failures, collision damage, or other related problems that may result during the de-orbiting process could constitute an uninsured loss and could materially harm our financial condition.

The effect of an epidemic or pandemic, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, could have an adverse impact on our operations and the operations of our customers and may have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
An epidemic or pandemic could significantly disrupt our operations, including, but not limited to, our workforce, supply
chain, regulatory processes and market demand of our products. An epidemic or pandemic could also significantly impact our
customers, including their demand for and ability to pay for our services and equipment. The extent to which COVID-19 could
continue to impact our operations and financial condition will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted.
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We operate in many tax jurisdictions, and changes in tax rates or adverse results of tax examinations could materially increase our costs.
We operate in various U.S. and foreign tax jurisdictions. The process of determining our anticipated tax liabilities involves many calculations and estimates which are inherently complex. Our tax obligations are subject to review and possible challenge by the taxing authorities of these jurisdictions, such as the ongoing income tax return audit being conducted by the Canada Revenue Agency of our Canadian subsidiary. If taxing authorities were to successfully challenge our current tax positions, or if we changed the manner in which we conduct certain activities, we could become subject to material, unanticipated tax liabilities. We may also become subject to additional tax liabilities as a result of changes to tax laws in any of our applicable tax jurisdictions, which in certain circumstances could have a retroactive effect.

We are exposed to trade credit risk in the ordinary course of our business activities.
We are exposed to risk of loss in the event of nonperformance by our customers of their obligations to us. Some of our customers may be highly leveraged or subject to their own operating and regulatory risks. Many of our customers finance their activities through cash flows from operations, the incurrence of debt or the issuance of equity. From time to time, credit is less available and available on more restrictive terms. The combination of reduction of cash flow resulting from declines in commodity prices and the lack of availability of debt or equity financing may result in a significant reduction in our customers' liquidity and ability to make payments or perform on their obligations to us. Even if our credit review and analysis mechanisms work properly, we may experience financial losses in our dealings with other parties. Any increase in the nonpayment or nonperformance by our customers could reduce our cash flows.

We have been in the past from time to time, and may be in the future, subject to litigation and investigations that could have a substantial, adverse impact on our business.
From time to time we are subject to litigation, including claims related to our business activities. We have also been in the past, and may be in the future, subject to investigations by regulators and governmental agencies, including the United States Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control, the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security and the United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Irrespective of their merits, litigation and investigations may be both lengthy and disruptive to our operations and could cause significant expenditure and diversion of management attention. At this time, we are not aware of any pending litigation, investigation, dispute or claim that could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity. However, we may be wrong in this assessment. Additionally, in the future we may become subject to additional litigation that could have a material adverse effect on our financial position and operating results, on the trading price of our securities and on our ability to access the capital markets.

Wireless devices' radio frequency emissions are the subject of regulation and litigation concerning their environmental effects, which includes alleged health and safety risks. As a result, we may be subject to new regulations, demand for our services may decrease, and we could face liability based on alleged health risks.
There has been adverse publicity concerning alleged health risks associated with radio frequency transmissions from portable hand-held telephones and other telecommunications devices that have transmitting antennas. Lawsuits have been filed against participants in the wireless communications industry alleging a number of adverse health consequences as a result of wireless phone usage. Other claims allege consumer harm from failures to disclose information about radio frequency emissions or aspects of the regulatory regimes governing those emissions. Although we have not been party to any such lawsuits, we may be exposed to such litigation in the future. Courts or governmental agencies could determine that we do not comply with applicable standards for radio frequency emissions and power or that there is valid scientific evidence that use of our devices poses a health risk. Any such finding could reduce our revenue and profitability and expose us and other communications service providers or device sellers to litigation, which, even if frivolous or unsuccessful, could be costly to defend.
Furthermore, any actual or perceived risk from radio frequency emissions could reduce the number of our subscribers and demand for our products and services.

Risks Related to Government Regulations
Our business is subject to extensive government regulation that will impact our future success.
Our MSS system is subject to significant regulation by the FCC in the United States, by the ARCEP and ANFR in France and in other foreign jurisdictions where we do business by similar authorities. Additionally, the availability of globally
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harmonized spectrum on which our MSS system depends is managed by the ITU. The rules and regulations of these regulatory authorities are subject to change and may not continue to permit our operations as currently conducted or as we plan to conduct them. Further, certain regulatory authorities may decide to allow additional uses within our ITU-allocation of spectrum that may be incompatible with our continued provision of MSS.
Failure to operate our satellites, ground stations, mobile earth terminals or other facilities as required by our licenses and applicable government regulations could result in the imposition of government sanctions against us, up to and including cancellation of our licenses.
Our system requires regulatory authorization in each of the jurisdictions in which we provide service. We may not be able to obtain or retain all regulatory approvals needed for operations. Regulatory changes, such as those resulting from judicial decisions or adoption of treaties, legislation or regulation in countries where we operate or intend to operate, may also significantly affect our business.
Our operations are subject to certain regulations of the United States State Department's Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (the export of satellites and related technical data), United States Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (financial transactions and transactions with sanctioned persons or countries) and the United States Commerce Department's Bureau of Industry and Security (export of satellites and related technical data, our gateways and phones) and as well as other similar foreign regulations. These U.S. and foreign obligations and regulations may limit or delay our ability to offer products and services in a particular country. We may be required to provide U.S. and some foreign government law enforcement and security agencies with call interception services and related government assistance, in respect of which we face legal obligations and restrictions in various jurisdictions. These regulations may limit or delay our ability to operate in a particular country or engage in transactions with certain parties and may impose significant compliance costs. As new laws and regulations are issued, we may be required to modify our business plans or operations. If we fail to comply with these regulations in any country, we could be subject to sanctions that could affect, materially and adversely, our ability to operate in that country. Failure to obtain the authorizations necessary to use our assigned radio frequency spectrum and to distribute our products in certain countries could have a material adverse effect on our ability to generate revenue and on our overall competitive position.

Spectrum values historically have been volatile, and may again be volatile in the future, which could cause the value of our business to fluctuate.
Our business plan includes forming strategic partnerships to maximize the use and value of our spectrum, network assets and combined service offerings in the United States and internationally. Value that we may be able to realize from these partnerships may depend in part on the value ascribed to our spectrum. Historically, valuations of spectrum in other frequency bands have been volatile, and we cannot predict the future value that we may be able to realize for our spectrum and other assets. In addition, to the extent that the FCC makes additional spectrum available or promotes the more flexible use or greater availability (e.g., via spectrum leasing or new spectrum sales) of existing satellite or terrestrial spectrum allocations, the availability of such additional spectrum could reduce the value that we are able to realize for our spectrum.

Our business plan to use our licensed MSS spectrum to provide terrestrial wireless services depends upon action by third parties, which we cannot control.
Our business plan includes utilizing our licensed MSS spectrum to provide terrestrial wireless services, including mobile broadband applications, around the world. Our MSS licenses, including our terrestrial authority, are valid through various specified terms, which we will seek to renew. In addition, we will need to comply with certain conditions in order to provide terrestrial broadband service under our MSS licenses, including obtaining FCC certifications for our equipment that will utilize this spectrum authority. We are seeking similar approvals in various foreign jurisdictions, including applying for licenses and commencing due diligence efforts. We cannot guarantee that such efforts will be successful.
We have entered into agreements with multiple third parties to develop an ecosystem of radios and devices using our terrestrially authorized spectrum. These third parties intend to use our terrestrially authorized spectrum to offer wireless services to their respective customers. Our anticipated future revenues and profitability are dependent upon the commercial success of their offerings.

Other future regulatory decisions could reduce our existing spectrum allocation or impose additional spectrum sharing agreements on us, which could adversely affect our services and operations.
The FCC may permit other MSS operators to operate in our frequency bands in the future. To date, there are no other authorized CDMA-based MSS operators. However, the FCC or other regulatory authorities may require us to share spectrum with other systems that are not currently licensed by the United States or any other jurisdiction. From time to time, Globalstar has faced applications by other operators for access to its licensed spectrum.

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We registered our second-generation constellation with the ITU through France rather than the United States. The French radio frequency spectrum regulatory agency, ANFR, submitted the technical papers filing to the ITU on our behalf in July 2009. As with the first-generation constellation, the ITU requires us to coordinate our spectrum assignments with other administrators and operators that use any portion of our spectrum frequency bands. We are actively engaged in but cannot predict how long the coordination process will take; however, we are able to use the frequencies during the coordination process in accordance with our national licenses. 
The FCC and other regulatory jurisdictions internationally are permitting expanded unlicensed use of the 5 GHz band including within our C-band Forward Link (earth station to satellite), which operates at 5091-5250 Mhz which may have a significant adverse impact on our ability to provide mobile satellite services.

If the FCC, our French regulator, or any other regulator, revokes, modifies or fails to renew or amend our licenses, our ability to operate may be limited.
We hold FCC licenses for the operation of our satellites, our U.S. gateways and other ground facilities and our mobile earth terminals that are subject to revocation if we fail to satisfy specified conditions or meet prescribed milestones. The FCC licenses are also subject to renewal and modification by the FCC.
We hold licenses issued by, and subject to the continued regulatory jurisdiction of, the French Ministry in charge of Space and the ARCEP, the French independent administrative authority of post and electronic communications regulations, for the operation of our second-generation satellites. These licenses are subject to revocation if we fail to satisfy specified conditions or meet prescribed milestones. These licenses are also subject to modification by the French regulators.
There can be no assurance that the FCC or our French regulators will renew the licenses we hold. If the FCC, the French Ministry, ARCEP or any other regulators revoke, modify or fail to renew or amend the licenses we hold or if we fail to satisfy any of the conditions of our respective licenses, then we may not be able to continue to provide mobile satellite communications services, which would have a material adverse effect on our business and operations.
 Furthermore, if we operate in any country without a valid license, we could face regulatory fines and criminal sanctions. We hold certain licenses in each country where our ground infrastructure is located. If we fail to maintain such licenses within any particular country, we may not be able to continue to operate the ground infrastructure located within that country, which could prevent us from continuing to provide mobile satellite communications services within that region.

Changes in international trade regulations and other risks associated with foreign trade could adversely affect our sourcing from foreign manufacturers.
 We source our products from both domestic and foreign contract manufacturers, the largest concentration of which being in China. The adoption of regulations related to the importation of products, including quotas, duties, taxes and other charges or restrictions on imported goods, and changes in U.S. customs procedures could result in an increase in the cost of our products. Recently, the U.S. imposed increased tariffs on certain imports from China, including several of our products, resulting in lower gross margin on impacted products. The current tariffs could increase or expand to additional categories of products not currently covered. We cannot predict how any future tariffs or other trade restrictions will impact our business, but further trade restrictions on our products may result in further reductions to gross margin. 
Additionally, delays in goods clearing customs or the disruption of international transportation lines used by us could result in our inability to deliver goods to customers in a timely manner or the loss of sales altogether. Current or future social and environmental regulations or critical issues, such as those relating to the sourcing of conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo or the need to eliminate environmentally sensitive materials from our products, could restrict the supply of components and materials used in production and increase our costs. Any delay or interruption to our manufacturing process or in shipping our products could result in lost revenue, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock
Our common stock is traded on the NYSE American but could be delisted in the future, which may impair our ability to raise capital.
Our common stock is listed on the NYSE American under the symbol “GSAT.” Broker-dealers may be less willing or able to sell and/or make a market in our common stock if it were delisted, which may make it more difficult for shareholders to dispose of, or to obtain accurate quotations for the price of, our common stock. Removal of our common stock from listing on the NYSE American may also make it more difficult for us to raise capital through the sale of our securities. 

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Restrictive covenants in our 2019 Facility Agreement and Service Agreements do not allow us to pay dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future, which may affect the market for our shares. 
We do not expect to pay cash dividends on our common stock. Our 2019 Facility Agreement and Service Agreements currently prohibits the payment of cash dividends on our common stock. During 2022, we issued shares of Series A Preferred Stock. The terms of Series A Preferred Stock provides for the payment of cumulative cash dividends at a rate of 7% per annum, subject to certain terms and conditions. If such dividends are not declared by our board of directors, the dividends will accrue and cumulative payment will be made on the next dividend payment date or upon liquidation. The issuance of the Series A Preferred Stock required consent from the remaining lender of our 2019 Facility Agreement.
Any future dividend payments are within the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, working capital requirements, capital expenditure requirements, financial condition, contractual restrictions, business opportunities, anticipated cash needs, provisions of applicable law and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. We may not generate sufficient cash from operations in the future to pay dividends on our common stock. Our inability to pay dividends may limit the market for our shares.

The market price of our common stock is volatile, and there is a limited market for our shares.
 The trading price of our common stock is subject to wide fluctuations. Factors affecting the trading price of our common stock may include, but are not limited to: 
actual or anticipated variations in our operating results;
failure in the performance of our current or future satellites;
changes in financial estimates by research analysts, or any failure by us to meet or exceed any such estimates, or changes in the recommendations of any research analysts that elect to follow our common stock or the common stock of our competitors;
actual or anticipated changes in economic, political or market conditions, such as recessions or international currency fluctuations;
actual or anticipated changes in the regulatory environment affecting our industry;
actual or anticipated changes in the value of terrestrial spectrum;
actual or anticipated sales of common stock by our controlling stockholder or others;
changes in the market valuations of our industry peers; and
announcement by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, divestitures, joint ventures or other strategic initiatives.
The trading price of our common stock may also decline in reaction to events that affect other companies in our industry even if these events do not directly affect us. Our stockholders may be unable to resell their shares of our common stock at or above the initial purchase price. Additionally, because we are a controlled company, there is a limited market for our common stock, and we cannot assure our stockholders that a trading market will further develop or persist. In periods of low trading volume, sales of significant amounts of shares of our common stock in the public market could lower the market price of our stock.

The future issuance of additional shares of our common stock could cause dilution of ownership interests and adversely affect our stock price.
We may issue our previously authorized and unissued securities, resulting in the dilution of the ownership interests of our current stockholders. We are authorized to issue 2.2 billion shares of common stock and 100 million shares of preferred stock, of which 0.3 million shares are designated as Series A Preferred Stock. As of December 31, 2022, approximately 1.8 billion shares of common stock were issued and outstanding and 0.1 million shares of Series A Preferred Stock were issued and outstanding. As of December 31, 2022, there were 0.4 billion shares of common stock available for future issuance, of which approximately 5.1 million shares were contingently issuable upon the exercise of stock options and the vesting of restricted stock awards and units and 49.1 million shares may be exercised by Partner from warrants issued under the Service Agreements to purchase up to 2.64% of our common stock (the "Warrants"). The number of Warrants issued to Partner is subject to certain adjustments, such as divided payments in shares of Globalstar common stock, stock splits, stock repurchases, merger, sale of assets or upon certain issuances of Globalstar common stock. We may issue additional shares of our common stock or other securities that are convertible into, or exercisable for, common stock for raising capital or other business purposes. Future sales of substantial amounts of common stock, or the perception that such sales could occur, may have a material adverse effect on the price of our common stock. 
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We have issued and may issue shares of preferred stock or debt securities with greater rights than our common stock.
Our certificate of incorporation authorizes our board of directors to issue one or more series of preferred stock and set the terms of the preferred stock without seeking any further approval from holders of our common stock. Currently, there are 100 million shares of preferred stock authorized, of which 0.1 million shares of Series A Preferred Stock are issued and outstanding. Any preferred stock that is issued may rank ahead of our common stock in terms of dividends, priorities and liquidation premiums and have preferential voting rights to those held by the holders of our common stock. 

If persons engage in short sales of our common stock, the price of our common stock may decline. 
Selling short is a technique used by a stockholder to take advantage of an anticipated decline in the price of a security. A significant number of short sales or a large volume of other sales within a relatively short period of time can create downward pressure on the market price of a security. Further sales of common stock could cause even greater declines in the price of our common stock due to the number of additional shares available in the market, which could encourage short sales that could further undermine the value of our common stock. Holders of our securities could, therefore, experience a decline in the value of their investment as a result of short sales of our common stock. 

Provisions in our charter documents, debt agreements and Delaware corporate law may discourage takeovers, which could affect the rights of holders of our common stock. 
Provisions of Delaware law and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and our debt agreements could hamper a third party's acquisition of us or discourage a third party from attempting to acquire control of us. These provisions include: 
the election of our Minority Directors by a plurality of the vote of our stockholders other than Thermo;
the requirement that (i) any extraordinary corporate transaction, such as a merger, reorganization or liquidation, involving us or any of our subsidiaries and (ii) any sale or transfer of a material amount of assets of Globalstar or any sale or transfer of assets of any of our subsidiaries which are material to us has to be approved by the Strategic Review Committee until such time as Thermo no longer beneficially owns at least 45% of our common stock;
the ability of our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting rights or with rights senior to those of the common stock without any further vote or action by the holders of our common stock;
the division of our board of directors into three separate classes serving staggered three-year terms;
the fact that if Thermo does not own a majority of our outstanding capital stock entitled to vote in the election of directors, our directors will be able to be removed for cause only with the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote in the election of directors;
prohibitions, at such time when Thermo does not own a majority of our outstanding capital stock entitled to vote in the election of directors, on our stockholders acting by written consent;
prohibitions on our stockholders calling special meetings of stockholders or filling vacancies on our board of directors;
the requirement, at such time when Thermo does not own a majority of our outstanding capital stock entitled to vote in the election of directors, that our stockholders must obtain a super-majority vote to amend or repeal our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or bylaws;
change of control provisions in our 2019 Facility Agreement, which provide that a change of control will constitute an event of default and, unless waived by the lenders, will result in the acceleration of the maturity of all indebtedness under that agreement; and
change of control provisions in our 2006 Equity Incentive Plan, which provide that a change of control may accelerate the vesting of all outstanding stock options, stock appreciation rights and restricted stock.
We also are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which, subject to certain exceptions, prohibits us from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder, as defined in that section, for a period of three years following the date on which that stockholder became an interested stockholder. This provision does not apply to Thermo, which became our principal stockholder prior to our initial public offering. 
These provisions also could make it more difficult for our stockholders to take certain corporate actions, and could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock. 

We are controlled by Thermo, whose interests may conflict with yours. 
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As of December 31, 2022, Thermo owned approximately 60% of our outstanding common stock. We have depended substantially on Thermo to provide capital to finance our business. Although extraordinary corporate transactions, material sales of assets and certain transactions with related parties must be approved by the Strategic Review Committee, to the extent these and other matters are also subject to a vote of our shareholders, Thermo is able to control such vote. These matters include the election of certain members of our board of directors and numerous other matters, including changes of control and other significant corporate transactions, so long as these transactions are not between Thermo and Globalstar and until such time as Thermo shall no longer be the beneficial owner of 45% or more of our outstanding common stock. 
Thermo is controlled by James Monroe III, our Executive Chairman. Through Thermo, Mr. Monroe holds equity interests in, and serves as an executive officer or director of, a diverse group of privately-owned businesses not otherwise related to us. We reimburse Thermo and Mr. Monroe for certain third party, documented, out-of-pocket expenses they incur in connection with our business. 
The interests of Thermo may conflict with the interests of our other stockholders. Thermo may take actions it believes will benefit its equity investment in us or loans to us even though such actions might not be in your best interests as a holder of our common stock.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
 
Not Applicable

Item 2. Properties
 
As of December 31, 2022, our principal headquarters are located in Covington, Louisiana. We own or lease the facilities described in the following table: 
Facility UseLocation
OfficesAfrica (Botswana)
Brazil (Rio de Janeiro)
Central America (Panama)
Europe (Ireland)
United States of America (California and Louisiana) (1)
GatewaysAfrica (Botswana, Gabon and Rwanda)
Argentina (Bosque Alegre)
Asia (Japan, Singapore and South Korea)
Australia (Dubbo, Meekatharra and Mount Isa)
Brazil (Manaus, Petrolina and Presidente Prudente)
Canada (Alberta and Ontario)
Europe (Estonia, France, Greece and Spain) (2)
Mexico (Jocotitlan)
Oceania (New Zealand)
South America (Venezuela)
United States of America (Alaska, Florida, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and Texas) (3)

(1) Location includes a Satellite and Ground Control Center.
(2) Location includes a Satellite Control Center.
(3) Certain owned properties are encumbered by liens in favor of the administrative agent under our 2019 Facility Agreement (and expected to be encumbered by liens under the Service Agreements) for the benefit of the lenders thereunder. See Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources - Contractual Obligations and Commitments in this Report.

As of December 31, 2022, we have executed an additional agreement for a new gateway location that is expected to commence during 2023.

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Item 3. Legal Proceedings
 
For a description of any material legal and regulatory proceedings and settlements, see Note 9: Commitments and Contingencies in our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Report. 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
 
Not Applicable

PART II
 
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
Common Stock Information
 
Our common stock trades on the NYSE American under the symbol "GSAT". As of February 24, 2023, 1,811 million shares of our common stock were outstanding, held by 226 holders of record. The number of holders of record is based upon the actual number of holders registered at such date and does not include holders of shares in street name or persons, partnerships, associates, corporations or other entities in security position listings maintained by depositories.

Preferred Stock

On November 15, 2022, we issued 149,425 shares, of our 7.0% Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series A, $0.0001 par value per share, with a liquidation preference of $1,000 per share (the “Series A Preferred Stock”). Holders of Series A Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive, when, as and if declared by our Board of Directors or a committee thereof, cumulative cash dividends based on the liquidation preference of the Series A Preferred Stock, at a fixed rate equal to 7.00% per annum, payable quarterly in arrears on January 1, April 1, July 1 and October 1 of each year, beginning on January 1, 2023. As of February 24, 2023, 149,425 shares of our preferred stock were outstanding, held by four holders of record.

In January 2023, our Board of Directors declared a dividend totaling $1.3 million for the period between November 15, 2022 and December 31, 2022; this payment was made in January 2023.

Dividend Information
 
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock. Prior to January 2023, we have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our preferred stock As discussed above, in November 2022, we issued shares of Series A Preferred Stock, which provides for the payment of cumulative cash dividends at a rate of 7% per annum. The issuance of the Series A Preferred Stock required consent from the remaining lender under our 2019 Facility Agreement. Except for preferred stock dividends, we currently intend to retain any future earnings and do not expect to pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. See Note 6: Long-Term Debt and Other Financing Arrangements in our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion.

Item 6. [Reserved]

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements and applicable notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements and other information included elsewhere in this Report, including risk factors disclosed in Part I, Item IA. Risk Factors. The following information contains forward-looking statements, which are subject to risks and uncertainties. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, our actual results may differ from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. See “Forward-Looking Statements” at the beginning of this Report.

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Performance Indicators
 
Our management reviews and analyzes several key performance indicators in order to manage our business and assess the quality and potential variability of our earnings and cash flows. These key performance indicators include:
 
total revenue, which is an indicator of our overall business growth;
subscriber growth and churn rate, which are both indicators of the satisfaction of our customers;
average monthly revenue per user, or ARPU, which is an indicator of our pricing and ability to obtain effectively long-term, high-value customers. We calculate ARPU separately for each type of our subscriber-driven revenue, including Duplex, Commercial IoT and SPOT;
operating income and adjusted EBITDA, both of which are indicators of our financial performance; and
capital expenditures, which are an indicator of future revenue growth potential and cash requirements.

Comparison of the Results of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021

Revenue:
 
Our revenue is categorized as service revenue and equipment revenue. We provide services to customers using technology from our satellite and ground network. Equipment revenue is generated from the sale of devices that work over our network. During the twelve months ended December 31, 2022, total revenue increased $24.2 million, or 19%, to $148.5 million from $124.3 million in 2021. See below for a further discussion of the fluctuation in revenue.
 
The following table sets forth amounts and percentages of our revenue by type of service (dollars in thousands).
 
 
Year Ended
December 31, 2022
Year Ended
December 31, 2021
 Revenue% of Total
Revenue
Revenue% of Total
Revenue
Service Revenue:    
Subscriber services
Duplex$29,222 20 %$31,197 25 %
SPOT45,670 31 %46,040 37 %
Commercial IoT19,516 13 %17,951 14 %
Wholesale capacity services34,913 24 %8,945 %
Engineering and other services2,747 %2,331 %
Total Service Revenue$132,068 89 %$106,464 85 %

The following table sets forth amounts and percentages of our revenue generated from equipment sales (dollars in thousands). 
 Year Ended
December 31, 2022
Year Ended
December 31, 2021
 Revenue% of Total
Revenue
Revenue% of Total
Revenue
Equipment Revenue:    
Duplex$319 — %$1,011 %
SPOT5,888 %9,427 %
Commercial IoT10,132 %7,169 %
Other97 — %226 — %
Total Equipment Revenue$16,436 11 %$17,833 15 %
 
The following table sets forth our average number of subscribers and ARPU by type of revenue.
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 December 31,
 20222021
Average number of subscribers for the year ended:  
Duplex40,913 45,789 
SPOT272,088 268,735 
Commercial IoT442,060 414,689 
Other13,330 26,864 
Total768,391 756,077 
ARPU (monthly): 
Duplex$59.52 $56.78 
SPOT 13.99 14.28 
Commercial IoT3.68 3.61 

The numbers reported in the above table are subject to immaterial rounding inherent in calculating averages.

We count "subscribers" based on the number of devices that are subject to agreements that entitle them to use our voice or data communications services rather than the number of persons or entities who own or lease those devices. 

Wholesale capacity service revenue includes revenue generated from satellite network access and related services under the Service Agreements, and engineering and other service revenue includes revenue generated primarily from certain governmental and engineering service contracts; neither of these service revenue items is subscriber driven. Accordingly, we do not present ARPU for wholesale capacity service revenue or engineering and other service revenue in the table above.

As previously discussed, during the first quarter of 2022, approximately 25,000 subscribers previously recorded in Other in the table above were removed from our subscriber count.
 
Service Revenue
 
Duplex service revenue decreased 6% in 2022 due primarily to a decline in average subscribers of 11% offset by an increase in ARPU of 5%. The decrease in average subscribers is due to churn exceeding gross activations over the last twelve months. In line with the shift in demand across the MSS industry from full Duplex voice and data services to IoT-enabled devices, we expect the decline in our Duplex subscriber base to continue as we focus our investments on IoT-enabled devices and services. The increase in ARPU is due to adjustments made to certain rate plans to align pricing with our competitors and to better align the value of services offered to our Duplex subscribers. Higher service prices were offset partially by strengthening of the U.S. dollar which lowered the revenue recognized from billings denominated in certain foreign currencies.
 
SPOT service revenue decreased 1% in 2022 due to lower ARPU, offset partially by an increase in average subscribers. The decrease in ARPU is due to the strengthening of the U.S. dollar as well as the mix of subscriber rate plans, including the continued popularity of our flex plans. Our flex plans generally carry lower rates than our traditional prepaid unlimited plans because users can suspend their service plan periodically during their contract term. Slightly offsetting the decrease in revenue due to lower ARPU were higher average subscribers. During 2022, our average subscriber base increased despite fewer than forecasted activations resulting from supply chain disruptions over the past few quarters (see further discussion below).
 
Commercial IoT service revenue increased 9% in 2022 due to higher average subscribers and, to a lesser extent, higher ARPU. During 2022, average subscribers increased 7% and ARPU increased 2%. Gross subscriber activations have increased 26% over the last twelve months and subscriber churn is lower over the same period. Our average subscriber base has grown despite significant production delays in 2022 resulting from component part shortages (discussed further below). As we fulfill sales back orders for Commercial IoT products, we expect to see activations continue to increase. Importantly, during the fourth quarter of 2022, we were able to fulfill many of these back orders, resulting in a greater than 50% increase in gross subscriber activations quarter over quarter. During 2022, steady growth in our Latin American subscriber base has also contributed to higher revenue; average subscribers for this region increased 29% and represent 4% of our average subscriber growth in total. The fluctuations in ARPU for both periods are driven by the mix of subscribers on various rate plans.
 
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Wholesale capacity service revenue increased $26.0 million to $34.9 million during 2022 from $8.9 million during 2021 due to the timing and amount of revenue recognized associated with the Service Agreements. This increase in revenue was due primarily to consideration received for performance obligations associated with our work to expand and upgrade our gateways around the globe in preparation for the launch of service as well as fees associated with the services that commenced in November 2022.

Engineering and other service revenue increased $0.4 million in 2022. Throughout 2022, we have made significant progress on constructing a teleport for a customer at one of our gateway locations in Brazil; the services performed for this customer contributed to more than the total increase in Engineering and other service revenue during the year. Other smaller items offset this increase in revenue year over year. Additionally, as previously discussed, we disconnected service to approximately 25,000 subscribers in Russia. During 2021, we billed less than $0.3 million to these subscribers and the revenue associated with these subscribers was recorded in Engineering and other service revenue.
 
Subscriber Equipment Sales
 
Revenue from Duplex equipment sales decreased $0.7 million, or 68%, in 2022. This decrease was due to a lower sales volume of phones and accessories since these devices are no longer being manufactured.

Revenue from SPOT equipment sales decreased $3.5 million, or 38%, in 2022. This decrease resulted from a lower volume of products sold over the last twelve months. Two of our core SPOT products were on back order for the vast majority of 2022, which delayed the fulfillment of orders, thereby reducing equipment sales year over year. We continue to see demand exceeding supply resulting from supply chain disruptions caused by component part shortages. We are actively working to address this issue. Production has resumed, and we are optimistic the remaining back orders will be fulfilled by the end of the first quarter of 2023.

Revenue from Commercial IoT equipment sales increased $3.0 million, or 41%, in 2022 due primarily to growth in demand for our Commercial IoT products and services. This demand has outpaced available inventory due to supply chain disruptions caused by component part shortages. While production issues were substantially resolved during the second half of 2022, we continue to be in a back order position. Once we are able to produce sufficient quantities to meet demand, we expect equipment sales to continue to increase and expect the remaining back orders will be fulfilled by the end of the first quarter of 2023.

Operating Expenses:
 
Total operating expenses increased 95% to $369.5 million in 2022 from $189.8 million in 2021 due primarily to reductions in the value of inventory and long-lived assets. This item and other contributors to the variance in operating expenses are explained in detail below.
 
Cost of Services
 
Cost of services increased $6.0 million, or 16%, to $43.4 million in 2022 from $37.4 million in 2021. The increase in cost of services was due to higher personnel costs totaling $3.0 million, which included $0.7 million related to non-recurring bonuses and separation pay. Higher lease expense associated with new teleport leases (including associated occupancy costs, such as utilities and other building services), which commenced throughout the second half of 2021, contributed to $2.2 million of the total increase. These leases were executed in connection with the gateway expansion project to support the Service Agreements; 85% of these lease and related costs are being reimbursed to us, and this consideration is being recognized as revenue (as further discussed above in "Wholesale capacity service revenue"). Higher professional fees and licensing costs related to our implementation of a new enterprise resource planning ("ERP") system, which went live in January 2022, as well as other costs for information technology security and maintenance contributed $1.8 million to the total increase.

These increases were offset partially by an employee retention credit received in December 2022. We received this refund check totaling $1.8 million as a result of our eligibility for the employee retention credit under the provisions of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act (the "CARES Act") for the first quarter of 2021. The refund was recorded as a reduction to operating expenses during the fourth quarter of 2022 and was allocated between Cost of Services and MG&A (defined below) totaling $1.3 million and $0.5 million, respectively, based on the employee costs incurred during the eligible period.

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Cost of Subscriber Equipment Sales
 
Cost of subscriber equipment sales decreased by $0.5 million, or 4%, to $13.1 million in 2022 from $13.6 million in 2021. This decrease is generally consistent with the decrease in total revenue from subscriber equipment sales, offset partially by the impact of the 2021 reversal of a prior year accrual for tariffs. Pursuant to regulatory developments, we reversed this accrual for potential tariffs owed on imports from China made prior to a ruling by the U.S Customs and Border Protection in September 2019 that we no longer believe will be due, resulting in an expense reduction of $1.0 million in 2021. Margin percentages for both SPOT and Commercial IoT narrowed during 2022 compared to 2021 resulting from the mix of products sold during each respective period.

Cost of Subscriber Equipment Sales - Reduction in the Value of Inventory

During 2022, we recorded a reduction in the value of inventory totaling $8.6 million. As disclosed in Note 8: Fair Value Measurements to our Consolidated Financial Statements, upon Partner's announcement in September 2022, our strategy relative to second-generation Duplex assets shifted. Due to this shift in strategy, we concluded that there was no remaining net realizable value of our second-generation Duplex inventory, resulting in an $8.5 million reduction in value of inventory. During 2021, we recorded a reduction in the value of inventory totaling $1.0 million which included the write-off of certain materials that were not likely to be used in production as well as defective inventory units that were not saleable.

Marketing, General and Administrative
 
Marketing, general and administrative expenses ("MG&A") increased $2.7 million, or 7%, to $44.1 million in 2022 from $41.4 million in 2021. The increase was due to higher personnel costs of $5.0 million. Included in personnel costs are higher stock-based compensation driven by performance grants to certain employees associated with their efforts under the Service Agreements ($4.0 million of the increase), cash bonuses ($0.5 million of the increase) and separation pay ($0.5 million of the increase). Higher professional and legal fees totaling $0.8 million also increased MG&A expense during the year. The provision for credit losses increased $0.9 million during 2022; this increase was due in part to a successful recovery of a previously reserved customer balance during 2021, which reduced expense in 2021 and did not recur in 2022.

These increases were offset partially by certain non-recurring items, including lower subscriber acquisition costs of $1.0 million due primarily to the deactivation of all Sat-Fi2® subscribers during the first half of 2021. Additionally, during 2021, we terminated our dealer program and reduced advertising spend for Duplex products and services; these items contributed $1.2 million to the decrease in MG&A expense. Also, during the first quarter of 2022, we reversed a $1.0 million accrual related to professional services associated with the 2018 shareholder litigation based on our assessment of the likelihood of payment. As discussed above in Cost of Services, we received a refund check as a result of our eligibility for the employee retention credit under the provisions of the CARES Act; we recorded a reduction to MG&A totaling $0.5 million during 2022.

Reduction in Value of Long-Lived Assets

During 2022, we recorded a reduction in the value of long-lived assets totaling $166.5 million. As disclosed in Note 8: Fair Value Measurements to our Consolidated Financial Statements, upon Partner's announcement in September 2022, our strategy relative to our second-generation Duplex assets shifted. Due to this shift in strategy, we re-assessed our asset grouping for long-lived assets and determined that the second-generation Duplex assets (including the gateways (and related technology) capable of providing commercial traffic to support Sat-Fi2®) are no longer part of our overall satellite and ground network. These second-generation Duplex assets will no longer provide future cash flows to us - these assets totaled approximately $161.2 million prior to their write down in September 2022. Our first-generation Duplex assets (i.e. handsets and related ground infrastructure) were not impacted. Also reflected in the reduction in the value of long-lived assets were certain prepaid licenses and royalties necessary for the manufacture and distribution of second-generation Duplex products and services. These prepaid items are no longer considered recoverable as there are no longer separately identifiable cash flows for such assets - these assets totaled approximately $4.7 million prior to their write down in September 2022.

Additionally, during 2022, we recorded reductions in the value of intangible and other assets totaling $0.6 million. We wrote off work in progress associated with spectrum licensing efforts in certain countries around the world. We determined that attainment of such licenses was no longer probable based on discussions with regulators and other circumstances.

Other (Expense) Income:
 
Gain on Extinguishment of Debt

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We recorded a gain on extinguishment of debt totaling $2.8 million during 2022 related to the November 2022 exchange of a portion of the 2019 Facility Agreement principal balance into Series A Preferred Stock. This gain was recorded for the portion exchanged for unaffiliated lenders only. The gain represents the difference between the net carrying amount prior to extinguishment (including unamortized deferred financing costs, debt discounts, and related derivative) and the reacquisition price of the debt.

We recorded a net gain on extinguishment of debt totaling $3.1 million during 2021 related to the following items: (i) gain on extinguishment of debt of $5.0 million resulting from the Small Business Administration's forgiveness of amounts outstanding under our Paycheck Protection Program ("PPP") loan and (ii) net losses on extinguishment of debt of $1.9 million resulting from the write off of deferred financing costs following unscheduled principal repayments of the 2009 Facility Agreement during 2021.

 Interest Income and Expense
 
Interest income and expense, net, decreased $13.3 million to $30.2 million for 2022 compared to $43.5 million for 2021. This decrease was driven primarily by higher capitalized interest (which decreases interest expense) of $11.5 million and lower gross interest costs of $1.8 million. The increase in capitalized interest is due to an increase in our construction in progress balance during 2022, associated primarily with the satellite procurement agreement with MDA to construct new satellites to replenish our existing satellite constellation. Gross interest costs were lower due to lower interest of $7.6 million associated with the 2009 Facility Agreement; this decrease was offset partially by higher interest of $2.3 million associated with the 2019 Facility Agreement, imputed non-cash interest associated with the significant financing component related to advance payments from Partner under the Service Agreements of $1.9 million, and the accrual of interest associated with our vendor financing totaling $1.3 million. Other smaller items contributed to the remaining variance during 2022.

Derivative Loss
 
We recorded derivative losses of $0.8 million and $1.0 million in 2022 and 2021, respectively. We recognize gains or losses due to the change in the value of certain embedded features within our debt instruments that require standalone derivative accounting. During 2022, an increase in the discount rate used in the valuation of the derivative associated with the 2019 Facility Agreement contributed to the derivatives loss. This impact was offset partially by changes in the probability and timing of prepayments contemplated in the valuation of the derivative associated with our 2019 Facility Agreement. Additionally, we recorded a gain on the valuation adjustment of the embedded derivative associated with our 2013 8.00% Notes following their conversion during the first quarter of 2022. The losses recorded during 2021 were due primarily to an increase in our stock price and stock price volatility, which are significant inputs used in the valuation of the embedded derivative associated with our 2013 8.00% Notes. See Note 8: Fair Value Measurements to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of the computation of the fair value of our derivatives.

Foreign Currency Loss

Foreign currency loss fluctuated by $0.3 million to a loss of $6.6 million in 2022 from a loss of $6.3 million in 2021. Changes in foreign currency gains and losses are driven by the remeasurement of financial statement items, which are denominated in various currencies, at each reporting period. For 2022 and 2021, the foreign currency losses were due to the strengthening of the U.S. dollar relative to certain other currencies, such as the Euro; other currency fluctuations of the Canadian Dollar and the Brazilian Real also impacted the net losses in both periods.

Pension Settlement Loss

In August 2022, we settled the remaining pension liability; this settlement resulted in a loss of $1.5 million. See Note 12: Pensions and Other Employee Benefits to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion. Similar activity did not occur during 2021.

Income Tax Expense (Benefit)

Income tax expense (benefit) fluctuated by $0.4 million to an expense of $0.1 million in 2022 from a benefit of $0.3 million in 2021. The primary income tax expense (benefit) is related to deferred state tax liabilities associated with net operating loss limitations.
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Comparison of the Results of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020

Discussion of the results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 can be found in the Globalstar Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, as filed with the SEC on February 25, 2022.

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Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Our principal near-term liquidity requirements include funding our operating costs; capital expenditures, including repayment of amounts being financed through MDA, and future amounts expected to be incurred under the satellite procurement agreement; repayment of the remaining principal balance due under the 2019 Facility Agreement; and interest and dividends due on any debt or preferred equity instruments outstanding.

Our principal sources of liquidity during 2022 included cash on hand, cash flows from operations and vendor financing. Our principal sources of liquidity over the next twelve months are expected to included cash on hand, cash flows from operations, prepayments under the Service Agreements (discussed in Recent Developments below) and funds from a debt or equity financing that have not yet been arranged. With this financing, we expect that our sources of liquidity will be sufficient for us to cover our obligations over the next twelve months and longer term. Another source of liquidity may include proceeds from the exercise of warrants under the Service Agreements.

Overview

As of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, we held cash and cash equivalents of $32.1 million and $14.3 million, respectively.

The total carrying amount of our debt and vendor financing outstanding was $191.9 million at December 31, 2022, compared to $237.9 at December 31, 2021.

The $46.0 million decrease in the carrying amount of our debt and vendor financing was due to the November 2022 exchange of $149.4 million principal amount of our 2019 Facility Agreement, a $6.3 million mandatory prepayment of principal in August 2022 of our 2019 Facility Agreement, and a $1.4 million reduction in the principal balance of the 2013 8.00% Notes following their conversion into shares of Globalstar common stock during 2022. These items were offset by amounts due to MDA under the satellite procurement agreement of $59.8 million during 2022, a higher carrying value of the 2019 Facility Agreement of $51.4 million due to the accrual of PIK interest ($35.2 million), the accretion of debt discount and amortization of deferred financing costs ($5.3 million) and the write off of deferred financing costs associated with the exchange discussed below ($10.9 million).

Recent Developments

On February 27, 2023, Globalstar and Partner agreed to amend the Service Agreements to provide for, among other things, Partner’s prepayment of $252 million to us (the “Prepayment”). We plan to use the proceeds of the Prepayment to pay amounts currently due and payable, and future amounts due, under our previously disclosed Satellite Procurement Agreement with MDA, as well as launch, insurance and ancillary costs incurred in connection with the construction and launch of these satellites. The Prepayment replaces our requirement to raise third-party financing for these costs as previously required under the Service Agreements and will be funded on a quarterly basis, subject to certain conditions in the agreement. The remaining amount of the satellite costs is expected to be funded from our operating cash flows.

The amount of the Prepayment and fees payable thereon will be recouped from amounts payable by our Partner for services provided by us under the Service Agreements. The Prepayment is expected to be recouped in installments for a period of 16 quarters beginning no later than the third quarter of 2025. The Prepayment may also be repaid over time through excess cash flow sweeps or voluntary prepayments, as provided under the terms of the prepayment agreement. For as long as any portion of the Prepayment is outstanding, we will be subject to certain covenants including (i) minimum cash balance of $30 million, (ii) interest coverage and leverage ratios, and (iii) limitations on certain asset transfers, expenditures and investments.

Amounts payable by us in connection with the Prepayment will be guaranteed by Thermo, subject to applicable shareholder approval. Prior to such shareholder approval, Thermo has agreed to provide support of certain of our obligations under the Service Agreements, the Satellite Procurement Agreement, and certain related contracts directly to Partner.

As conditions precedent to Prepayment funding, we must (i) convert or refinance the remaining loans outstanding under the 2019 Facility Agreement by March 13, 2023 and (ii) grant Partner a first-priority lien in our assets to secure its obligations under the Service Agreements.

Cash Flows for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020
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The following table shows our cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities (in thousands):
  
 Year Ended December 31,
Statements of Cash Flows202220212020
Net cash provided by operating activities$63,800 $131,881 $22,215 
Net cash used in investing activities(39,952)(45,186)(14,536)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(6,048)(140,282)1,164 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(22)(132)52 
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$17,778 $(53,719)$8,895 
 
Cash Flows Provided by Operating Activities
 
Net cash provided by operations includes primarily cash receipts from wholesale capacity services provided to our Partner under the Service Agreements as well as satellite voice and data services provided, and equipment sold, to our subscribers. We use cash in operating activities primarily for personnel, network maintenance, inventory purchases and other general corporate expenditures.
Net cash provided by operating activities was $63.8 million during 2022 compared to $131.9 million during 2021. This decrease was due primarily to a smaller increase in deferred revenue during 2022 compared to 2021 due to the timing and amount of prepayments made by Partner under the Service Agreements, which were recorded as deferred revenue (see Note 2: Revenue to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion). The decrease in operating cash flows was also due to other working capital changes year over year, including the timing of vendor payments and customer receivables, offset partially by higher net income in 2022 after adjusting for noncash items.

Cash Flows Used in Investing Activities
 
Net cash used in investing activities was $40.0 million during 2022 compared to $45.2 million during 2021. The nature of our capital expenditures in both years related primarily to network upgrades associated with the Service Agreements, including the procurement and deployment of new antennas for our gateways, the preparation and launch of our on-ground spare satellite in June 2022, and milestone work under the satellite procurement agreement with MDA which was executed in February 2022. Cash used in investing decreased from 2021 to 2022 due to lower costs associated with gateway upgrades as that portion of the project nears completion, offset partially by replacement satellite costs.

Cash Flows Provided by (Used in) Financing Activities
 
Net cash used in financing activities was $6.0 million in 2022 compared to net cash provided by financing activities of $140.3 million in 2021. Net cash used in financing activities was $6.0 million during 2022 due to an unscheduled principal repayment of the 2019 Facility Agreement in August 2022 totaling $6.3 million. During 2021, we paid off the remaining principal balance due under the 2009 Facility Agreement of $187.0 million (see further discussion below). In March 2021, we received $43.7 million in proceeds from the exercise of the warrants issued with our 2019 Facility Agreement and, in December 2021, we received a partial refund of premiums previously paid for the 2009 Facility Agreement of $2.6 million.

Discussion of our cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 can be found in the Globalstar Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, as filed with the SEC on February 25, 2022.

Indebtedness

For further discussion on all of our debt and other financing arrangements, see Note 6: Long-Term Debt and Other Financing Arrangements in our Consolidated Financial Statements.

2019 Facility Agreement

In November 2019, we entered into a $199.0 million facility agreement with Thermo, an affiliate of EchoStar Corporation and certain other unaffiliated lenders. The 2019 Facility Agreement is scheduled to mature in November 2025. The remaining
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loans under the 2019 Facility Agreement bear interest at a rate of 14% per annum to be paid-in-kind (or in cash, at our option). As of December 31, 2022, the principal amount outstanding under the 2019 Facility Agreement was $143.2 million. As previously disclosed, we provided notice to the agent and remaining lender of our intent to voluntarily prepay all remaining amounts due under the 2019 Facility Agreement by March 13, 2023.

In connection with our Partner's launch of Services on November 15, 2022, to satisfy our obligation to complete the Thermo Debt Conversion (as described in our Current Report on Form 8-K filed September 7, 2022), we entered into an Exchange Agreement dated as of November 15, 2022 (the “Exchange Agreement”) with affiliates of Thermo and certain other lenders (collectively, the “Exchanging Lenders”) providing for the exchange of all the outstanding principal amount of, and accrued and unpaid interest on, the Exchanging Lenders’ loans under the 2019 Facility Agreement for shares of our Series A Preferred Stock. Pursuant to the terms of the Exchange Agreement, on November 15, 2022, we exchanged a total of $149.4 million of loans under the 2019 Facility Agreement, including all loans held by Thermo.

Our obligations under the 2019 Facility Agreement are guaranteed on a senior secured basis by all of our domestic subsidiaries' assets and are secured by a first priority lien on substantially all of our assets and our domestic subsidiaries (other than their FCC licenses), including patents and trademarks, 100% of the equity of our domestic subsidiaries and 65% of the equity of certain foreign subsidiaries.

The 2019 Facility Agreement contains customary events of default and requires us to satisfy various financial and non-financial covenants. The compliance calculations of the financial covenants of the 2019 Facility Agreement permit us to include certain cash funds we receive from the issuance of our common stock and/or subordinated indebtedness. We refer to these funds as "Equity Cure Contributions". If we violate any covenants and are unable to obtain a sufficient Equity Cure Contribution or obtain a waiver, we would be in default under the 2019 Facility Agreement, and the lenders could accelerate payment of the indebtedness. As of December 31, 2022, we were in compliance with all the covenants of the 2019 Facility Agreement.

The 2019 Facility Agreement requires mandatory prepayments of principal with any Excess Cash Flow (as defined and calculated in the 2019 Facility Agreement) on a semi-annual basis. We generated Excess Cash Flow for the six-month measurement period ended June 30, 2022 and were required to pay $6.3 million to our lenders in August 2022. This payment reduced future principal payment obligations. The Company generated Excess Cash Flow for the six-month measurement period ended December 31, 2022 and will be required to pay approximately $2.0 million if the debt remains outstanding on March 16, 2023.

Vendor Financing

In February 2022, we entered into a satellite procurement agreement with MDA. This agreement (as amended in October 2022 and January 2023) provides for deferrals of milestone payments through March 15, 2023. We have made $34 million in payments to MDA under this agreement, including $14 million during the fourth quarter 2022 and $20 million in January 2023. As of December 31, 2022, the amount outstanding under this agreement was $59.8 million. Interest accrues on the amount outstanding at an annual rate of 7%, which increased to 10.5% on balances outstanding between December 2022 and March 2023. As discussed above, we expect to pay the deferred milestone payments on or before March 15, 2023 using Prepayment funding from our Partner under the Service Agreements.

8.00% Convertible Senior Notes Issued in 2013

In May 2013, we issued $54.6 million aggregate principal amount of its 2013 8.00% Notes. In March 2022, the holders converted the remaining principal amount outstanding into 2.3 million shares of Globalstar common stock at a conversion price of $0.69 (as adjusted) per share of common stock.

Series A Preferred Stock

In November 2022, we entered into an exchange agreement with the Exchange Lenders, who are affiliates of Thermo and certain other lenders providing for the exchange of all the outstanding principal amount of, and accrued and unpaid interest on, the Exchanging Lenders’ loans under the 2019 Facility Agreement for shares of Series A Preferred Stock. Holders of Series A Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive, when, as and if declared by our Board of Directors or a committee thereof, cumulative cash dividends based on the liquidation preference of the Series A Preferred Stock, at a fixed rate equal to 7.00% per annum, payable quarterly in arrears on January 1, April 1, July 1 and October 1 of each year, beginning on January 1, 2023.
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Contractual Obligations and Commitments

Contractual obligations arising in the normal course of business consist primarily of debt obligations (as discussed above), purchase commitments with vendors related to the procurement, deployment and maintenance of our network (discussed below), obligations for non-cancellable purchase orders for inventory ($14.0 million which we expect to be fulfilled in the next fifteen months based on current forecasted equipment sales) and operating lease obligations (see Note 3: Leases to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion).

Satellite Procurement Agreement

We have a satellite procurement agreement with MDA pursuant to which we expect to acquire 17 new satellites that will replenish our existing constellation of satellites and ensure long-term continuity of our mobile satellite services. The procurement agreement requires MDA to deliver the satellites by 2025, with an expectation that all satellites will be launched by the end of 2025. We are acquiring the satellites to provide continuous satellite services to Partner under the Service Agreements, as well as services to our current and future customers. The current contract price for the new satellites is $327.0 million and we have the option of purchasing additional satellites under the contract. In addition, MDA will procure a satellite operations control center for $4.9 million.

To date, the parties have accepted milestones totaling $121.0 million, of which $34.0 million has been paid in cash ($14.0 million was paid during 2022 and an additional $20.0 million was paid in January 2023) and $39.6 million remains as vendor financing due on March 15, 2023. The most recent milestone of $47.4 million was completed in January 2023, as provided in the procurement agreement, and payment is due within the 45-day payment terms pursuant to the procurement agreement. As discussed above, we expect to pay the outstanding milestone payments using Prepayment funding from our Partner under the Service Agreements.

The satellite procurement agreement with MDA contains customary termination provisions including our right to terminate the contract for convenience at any time, subject to certain conditions. We plan to enter into additional agreements for launch services and launch insurance for these satellites. Under the Service Agreements, subject to certain terms and conditions, Partner has agreed to make service payments equal to 95% of the approved capital expenditures under the satellite procurement agreement (to be paid on a straight-line basis over the useful life of the satellites) and certain other costs incurred for the new satellites, as adjusted based on certain provisions, beginning with the Phase 2 Service Period.

Other Network Purchase Commitments

Other purchase commitments with vendors for our network total $4.1 million over the next year.

See Note 9: Commitments and Contingencies to our Consolidated Financial Statements for discussion on our contractual commitments.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
 
For a discussion of recent accounting guidance and the expected impact that the guidance could have on our Consolidated Financial Statements, see Note 1: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in our Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
 
Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our Consolidated Financial Statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes. Note 1: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in our Consolidated Financial Statements contains a description of the accounting policies used in the preparation of our financial statements as well as the consideration of recently issued accounting standards and the estimated impact these standards will have on our financial statements. We evaluate our estimates on an ongoing basis, including those related to revenue recognition; property and equipment; and income taxes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. Actual amounts could differ significantly from these estimates under different assumptions and conditions.
 
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We define a critical accounting policy or estimate as one that is both important to our financial condition and results of operations and requires us to make difficult, subjective or complex judgments or estimates about matters that are uncertain. We believe that the following are the critical accounting policies and estimates used in the preparation of our Consolidated Financial Statements. In addition, there are other items within our Consolidated Financial Statements that require estimates but are not deemed critical as defined in this paragraph.

Revenue Recognition
 
Our primary types of revenue include (i) service revenue from two-way voice communication, and one-way and two-way data transmissions between a mobile or fixed device, (ii) subscriber equipment revenue from the sale of fixed and mobile devices as well as other products and accessories, (iii) wholesale capacity service revenue from providing satellite network access and related services utilizing our satellite spectrum and network of satellites and gateways and (iv) service revenue from providing engineering and communication services to certain customers. The complexities or judgements involved in revenue recognition are discussed below.

If a contract includes more than one performance obligation, such as under the Service Agreements or when subscriber equipment is bundled with services in a multiple-element arrangement, we allocate the transaction price to each performance obligation in proportion to their standalone selling prices at contract inception and recognize them when, or as, each performance obligation is satisfied. Determination of the relative stand-alone selling prices is complex and involves judgement, as prices may vary based on many factors, such as promotions, customer, volume and/or type of equipment sold.

Service revenue is generally recognized over a period of time (consistent with the customer's receipt and consumption of the benefits of our performance) and revenue from the sale of subscriber equipment is recognized at a point in time (consistent with the transfer of risks and rewards of ownership of the hardware).

We record customer payments received in advance of the corresponding service period as deferred revenue. We assess the timing of the transfer of products or services to a customer as compared to the timing of payments made to us to determine whether a significant financing component exists. In general, our subscriber-driven contracts are paid monthly or annually and the time between cash collection and performance is less than one year. For certain payments made under the Service Agreements, the length of time between receipt of payment by Partner and the transfer of services by us is greater than twelve months. Accordingly, these payments made by Partner include a significant financing component.

For Duplex service revenue, we recognize revenue for monthly access fees in the period services are rendered. For annual plans whereby a customer prepays for a predetermined amount of minutes and data, revenue is recognized consistent with the customer's expected pattern of usage, based on historical experience because we believe that this method most accurately depicts the satisfaction of our obligation to the customer. For annual plans where the customer is charged an annual fee to access our system, we recognize revenue on a straight-line basis over the term of the plan.

For our subscriber-driven contracts, subscriber acquisition costs primarily include internal sales commissions and initial activation commissions as well as certain other costs, including but not limited to, promotional costs, cooperative marketing credits and shipping and fulfillment costs. We capitalize incremental costs to obtain a contract to the extent we expect to recover such costs. All other subscriber acquisitions costs are expensed at the time of the related sale.

For wholesale capacity services, we capitalize costs to fulfill a contract to the extent we expect to recover them and we also capitalize noncash consideration issued to Partner under the Service Agreements. Costs to fulfill a contract may include certain expenses incurred by us prior to the customer benefiting from the service, such as personnel and contractor costs and other operating expenses. Under the Service Agreements, we issued Partner the Warrants to purchase shares of Globalstar common stock; we recorded the Warrants at the estimated fair value of the consideration granted based on a Black-Scholes pricing model. The fair value of the Warrants was capitalized as a contract asset and will be recognized as a reduction of the transaction price over the estimated term of the Service Agreements.
 
Property and Equipment
 
The vast majority of our property and equipment costs are incurred related to the construction of our second-generation constellation, including an agreement executed in 2022 for the purchase of new satellites to replenish our existing satellite constellation, and ground station upgrades. Accounting for these assets requires us to make complex judgments and estimates. We capitalize costs associated with the design, manufacture, test and launch of our low earth orbit satellites. We capitalize costs associated with the design, manufacture and test of our ground stations and other capital assets. We track capitalized costs associated with our ground stations and other capital assets by fixed asset category and allocate them to each asset as it comes
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into service. For assets that are sold or retired, including satellites that are de-orbited and no longer providing services, we remove the estimated cost and accumulated depreciation. We recognize a loss from an in-orbit failure of a satellite equal to its net book value, if any, in the period it is determined that the satellite is not recoverable.
 
Estimating the useful life of our assets is complex and involves judgement. We evaluate the appropriateness of estimated depreciable lives assigned to our property and equipment and revise such lives to the extent warranted by changing facts and circumstances. If the useful life of our significant assets changes, this change could impact our operating results. The estimated useful lives of our assets is based on many factors, including estimated design life, information from our engineering department and our overall strategy for the use of the assets. A one year reduction in the estimated useful life of our second-generation satellites would result in an annual increase to depreciation expense of $5.2 million.

We review the carrying value of our assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the recorded value may not be recoverable. If indicators of impairment exist, we compare future undiscounted cash flows to the carrying value of the asset group. If an asset is not recoverable, its carrying value would be adjusted down to fair value and an impairment loss would be recorded. Key assumptions in our impairment tests include projected future cash flows, the timing of network upgrades and current discount rates. Additionally, from time to time, we perform profitability analyses to determine if investments in certain products and/or services remain viable. In the event we determine to no longer support a product or service, or that an asset is not expected to generate future benefit, the asset may be abandoned and an impairment loss may be recorded.

Income Taxes
 
We use the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. This method takes into account the differences between financial statement treatment and tax treatment of certain transactions. We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis. We measure deferred tax assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Our deferred tax calculation requires us to make certain estimates about our future operations. Changes in state, federal and foreign tax laws, as well as changes in our financial condition or the carrying value of existing assets and liabilities, could affect these estimates. We recognize the effect of a change in tax rates as income or expense in the period that the rate is enacted; however, as we have a full valuation allowance on our deferred tax assets, there is no impact to the consolidated statements of operations and balance sheets.
 
GAAP requires us to assess whether it is more likely than not that we will be able to realize some or all of our deferred tax assets. If we cannot determine that deferred tax assets are more likely than not to be recoverable, GAAP requires us to provide a valuation allowance against those assets. This assessment takes into account factors including: (a) the nature, frequency, and severity of current and cumulative financial reporting losses; (b) sources of estimated future taxable income; and (c) tax planning strategies. We must weigh heavily a pattern of recent financial reporting losses as a source of negative evidence when determining our ability to realize deferred tax assets. Projections of estimated future taxable income exclusive of reversing temporary differences are a source of positive evidence only when the projections are combined with a history of recent profitable operations and can be reasonably estimated. Otherwise, GAAP requires that we consider projections inherently subjective and generally insufficient to overcome negative evidence that includes cumulative losses in recent years. If necessary and available, we would implement tax planning strategies to accelerate taxable amounts to utilize expiring carryforwards. These strategies would be a source of additional positive evidence supporting the realization of deferred tax assets.
 
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
 
Our services and products are sold, distributed or available in over 120 countries. Our international sales are denominated primarily in Canadian dollars, Brazilian reais and euros. In some cases, insufficient supplies of U.S. currency may require us to accept payment in other foreign currencies. We reduce our currency exchange risk from revenues in currencies other than the U.S. dollar by requiring payment in U.S. dollars whenever possible and purchasing foreign currencies on the spot market when rates are favorable. We currently do not purchase hedging instruments to hedge foreign currencies. We are obligated to enter into currency hedges with the lenders to the 2019 Facility Agreement no later than 90 days after any fiscal quarter during which more than 25% of revenues is denominated in a single currency other than U.S. or Canadian dollars. Otherwise, we cannot enter into hedging agreements other than interest rate cap agreements or other hedges described above without the consent of the agent for the 2019 Facility Agreement, and with that consent the counterparties may only be the lenders to the 2019 Facility Agreement.

We may be exposed to the risk of rising interest rates if our future borrowings bear interest at a floating rate.
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We also have operations in Argentina, which is considered to have a highly inflationary economy. We continue to monitor the significant uncertainty surrounding current Argentinian exchange mechanisms. Operations in this country are not considered significant to our consolidated operations.

See Note 8: Fair Value Measurements in our Consolidated Financial Statements for discussion of our financial assets and liabilities measured at fair market value and the market factors affecting changes in fair market value of each.

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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
 Page
Audited Consolidated Financial Statements of Globalstar, Inc.
Report of Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm (PCAOB ID 42)
Consolidated balance sheets at December 31, 2022 and 2021
Consolidated statements of operations for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020
Consolidated statements of comprehensive (loss) income for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020
Consolidated statements of stockholders’ equity for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020
Consolidated statements of cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements


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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

The Board of Directors and Stockholders of Globalstar, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Globalstar, Inc. (the Company) as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive (loss) income, stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2022 and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2022 and 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2022, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework), and our report dated March 1, 2023, expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of the critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the account or disclosures to which it relates.

Useful life of Space component assets
Description of the Matter
At December 31, 2022, the Company had $1.2 billion of Space component assets recorded as property and equipment. As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s Space component assets are depreciated on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful life, which is currently estimated to be 15 years. Management’s estimate of the useful life of its Space component assets was based on estimated design life, information from the Company’s engineering department and overall Company strategy for the use of the assets.
Auditing the Company’s estimate of the useful life of its Space component assets involved a high degree of subjectivity due to the application of management’s judgment when evaluating the available information to determine the estimated useful life. The resulting estimated useful life has a significant effect on the timing of recognition of depreciation expense given the magnitude of the carrying amount of the Space component assets.
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How We Addressed the Matter in Our AuditWe obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of controls over the Company's process to determine the estimated useful life of its Space component assets, including controls over management’s evaluation of the available information to determine the estimated useful life.
Our testing of the Company's estimated useful life of the Space component assets included, among other procedures, evaluating the application of available information to determine the estimated useful life. We compared management’s useful life to the manufacturer’s estimated design life, publicly available information on the estimated useful life of similar assets, operation and performance of the assets per the Company’s engineering group, and the life of its first-generation satellite constellation. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of changes, if any, in the Company’s long-term strategy for use of the assets on the useful life estimate.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2020.

New Orleans, Louisiana
March 1, 2023


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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

The Board of Directors and Stockholders of Globalstar, Inc.

Opinion on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We have audited Globalstar, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) (the COSO criteria). In our opinion, Globalstar, Inc. (the Company) maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, based on the COSO criteria.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of operations, statements of comprehensive (loss) income, stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2022, and the related notes and our report dated March 1, 2023, expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Basis for Opinion

The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

New Orleans, Louisiana
March 1, 2023
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GLOBALSTAR, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except par value and share data)
 December 31,
 20222021
ASSETS  
Current assets:  
Cash and cash equivalents$32,082 $14,304 
Accounts receivable, net of allowance for credit losses of $2,892 and $2,962, respectively
26,329 21,182 
Inventory9,264 13,829 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets13,569 19,558 
Total current assets81,244 68,873 
Property and equipment, net560,371 672,156 
Operating lease right of use assets, net30,859 32,041 
Prepaid satellite construction costs and related customer receivable122,496  
Intangible and other assets, net of accumulated amortization of $10,908 and $11,189, respectively
38,425 41,036 
Total assets$833,395 $814,106 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY  
Current liabilities:  
Accounts payable$3,843 $6,247 
Vendor financing59,822  
Accrued expenses58,446 28,947 
Payables to affiliates326 444 
Deferred revenue74,639 25,927 
Total current liabilities197,076 61,565 
Long-term debt132,115 237,932 
Operating lease liabilities27,635 29,237 
Deferred revenue, net157,803 112,054 
Other non-current liabilities3,995 7,887 
Total non-current liabilities321,548 387,110 
Commitments and contingent liabilities (Note 9)
Stockholders’ equity:  
Preferred Stock of $0.0001 par value; 99,700,000 and 100,000,000 shares authorized and none issued and outstanding at December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively
  
Series A Preferred Stock of $0.0001 par value; 300,000 shares authorized and 149,425 issued and outstanding at December 31, 2022; no shares authorized and none issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2021
  
Voting Common Stock of $0.0001 par value; 2,150,000,000 shares authorized; 1,811,074,696 and 1,796,528,871 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively
181 180 
Additional paid-in capital2,345,612 2,146,710 
Accumulated other comprehensive income9,242 1,890 
Retained deficit(2,040,264)(1,783,349)
Total stockholders’ equity314,771 365,431 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$833,395 $814,106 
See accompanying notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
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GLOBALSTAR, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except per share data)
 
 Year Ended December 31,
 202220212020
Revenue:   
Service revenue$132,068 $106,464 $113,191 
Subscriber equipment sales16,436 17,833 15,296 
Total revenue148,504 124,297 128,487 
Operating expenses:   
Cost of services (exclusive of depreciation, amortization and accretion shown separately below)43,370 37,372 34,751 
Cost of subscriber equipment sales13,097 13,587 13,268 
Cost of subscriber equipment sales - reduction in the value of inventory8,553 1,004 662 
Marketing, general and administrative44,103 41,358 41,738 
Reduction in the value of long-lived assets166,526 242 416 
Depreciation, amortization and accretion93,884 96,237 96,815 
Total operating expenses369,533 189,800 187,650 
Loss from operations(221,029)(65,503)(59,163)
Other (expense) income:   
Gain on extinguishment of debt2,790 3,098  
Interest income and expense, net of amounts capitalized(30,168)(43,536)(48,429)
Derivative (loss) gain(805)(1,043)2,897 
Foreign currency loss(6,592)(6,308)(727)
Pension settlement loss(1,501) (2,075)
Other463 368 (1,480)
Total other expense(35,813)(47,421)(49,814)
Loss before income taxes(256,842)(112,924)(108,977)
Income tax expense (benefit)73 (299)662 
Net loss$(256,915)$(112,625)$(109,639)
Net loss attributable to common shareholders (Note 14)
$(258,252)$(112,625)$(109,639)
Net loss per common share:   
Basic$(0.14)$(0.06)$(0.07)
Diluted(0.14)(0.06)(0.07)
Weighted-average shares outstanding:   
Basic1,800,825 1,765,139 1,642,359 
Diluted1,800,825 1,765,139 1,642,359 
 
See accompanying notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
 

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GLOBALSTAR, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(In thousands)
 Year Ended December 31,
 202220212020
Net loss$(256,915)$(112,625)$(109,639)
Other comprehensive income:   
Defined benefit pension plan liability adjustment2,073 410 2,042 
Net foreign currency translation adjustment5,279 4,424 (1,537)
Total other comprehensive income7,352 4,834 505 
Total comprehensive loss$(249,563)$(107,791)$(109,134)
  
See accompanying notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
 

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GLOBALSTAR, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(In thousands)
Preferred StockCommon StockAdditional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)Retained
Deficit
Total
 SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balances – December 31, 2019 $ 1,464,544 $146 $1,970,047 $(3,449)$(1,559,401)$407,343 
Net issuance of restricted stock awards and recognition of stock-based compensation— — 7,637 1 4,766 — — 4,767 
Contribution of services— — — — 232 — — 232 
Issuance and recognition of stock-based compensation of employee stock purchase plan— — 2,253 — 1,048 — — 1,048 
Common stock issued in connection with conversion of Loan Agreement with Thermo— — 200,140 20 120,441 — — 120,461 
Common stock issued in connection with conversion of 2013 8.00% Notes
— — 95 — 32 — — 32 
Impact of adoption of Credit Loss Standard— — — — — — (1,684)(1,684)
Other comprehensive income— — — — — 505 — 505 
Net loss— — — — — — (109,639)(109,639)
Balances – December 31, 2020 $ 1,674,669 $167 $2,096,566 $(2,944)$(1,670,724)$423,065 
Net issuance of restricted stock awards and employee stock options and recognition of stock-based compensation— — 4,937 1 5,543 — — 5,544 
Contribution of services— — — 188 — — 188 
Issuance and recognition of stock-based compensation of employee stock purchase plan— — 1,887 — 747 — — 747 
Issuance of stock for warrant exercises— — 115,036 12 43,666 — — 43,678 
Other comprehensive income— — — — — 4,834 — 4,834 
Net loss— — — — — — (112,625)(112,625)
Balances – December 31, 2021 $ 1,796,529 $180 $2,146,710 $1,890 $(1,783,349)$365,431 
Net issuance of restricted stock awards and employee stock options and recognition of stock-based compensation— — 11,577 1 10,588 — — 10,589 
Contribution of services— — — — 188